Table 2: Cardiovascular side effects of IBD treatment [44, 92, 120134].

(i) Hypertension
(ii) Dyslipidemia
(iii) Accelerated atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndromes
(iv) Thromboembolism
(v) Worsening heart failure
(vi) Arrhythmias
(vii) Pericarditis and myocarditis