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International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Volume 2017, Article ID 8108504, 9 pages
Research Article

Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Citrullus lanatus Fruit Rind Extract

1Chemistry Department, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
2School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, United States International University Africa, P.O. Box 14634, Nairobi 00800, Kenya
3Multimedia University of Kenya, P.O. Box 30305, Nairobi 00100, Kenya

Correspondence should be addressed to Naumih M. Noah;

Received 30 November 2016; Accepted 30 January 2017; Published 20 February 2017

Academic Editor: Xifan Mei

Copyright © 2017 Michael Ndikau et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The wide-scale application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in areas such as chemical sensing, nanomedicine, and electronics has led to their increased demand. Current methods of AgNPs synthesis involve the use of hazardous reagents and toxic solvents. There is a need for the development of new methods of synthesizing AgNPs that use environmentally safe reagents and solvents. This work reports a green method where silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using silver nitrate and the aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus fruit rind as the reductant and the capping agent. The optimized conditions for the AgNPs synthesis were a temperature of 80°C, pH 10, 0.001 M AgNO3, 250 g/L watermelon rind extract (WMRE), and a reactant ratio of 4 : 5 (AgNO3 to WMRE). The AgNPs were characterized by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy exhibiting a at 404 nm which was consistent with the spectra of spherical AgNPs within the wavelength range of 380–450 nm, and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) results showed a distinct oxidation peak at +291 mV while the standard reference AgNPs (20 nm diameter) oxidation peak occurred at +290 mV, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) revealed spherical shaped AgNPs. The AgNPs were found to have an average diameter of  nm.