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International Journal of Breast Cancer
Volume 2017, Article ID 1683060, 6 pages
Review Article

Metronomic Chemotherapy in Triple-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer: The Future Is Now?

1Research Unit Phase I Trials, ASST Monza, Monza, Italy
2Oncology Unit, ASST Monza, Monza, Italy
3Haematology and Oncology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico di Modena, Modena, Italy
4Oncology Unit, ASST Ovest Milanese, Legnano, Italy
5Oncology Day Hospital Unit, Ospedale Civile di Guastalla, Guastalla, Italy
6Oncology Unit, Ospedale Vito Fazzi, Lecce, Italy
7Oncology Unit, ASST Rhodense-Presidio di Garbagnate Milanese e Presidio di Rho, Garbagnate, Italy
8Oncology Unit, ASST Lecco, Lecco, Italy
9Oncology Unit, ASST Lariana, Como, Italy
10Oncology Unit, ASST della Valle Olona, Saronno, Italy
11Oncology Day Hospital Unit, Azienda USL Romagna, Cattolica, Italy
12Oncology Unit, ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco, Milano, Italy
13Oncology Unit, ASST della Valle Olona, Busto Arsizio, Italy
14Oncology Unit, ASST Melegnano-Martesana, Gorgonzola, Italy
15Methodology for Clinical Research Laboratory, IRCCS Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milano, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to M. E. Cazzaniga; ti.aznom-tssa@aginazzac.aniram

Received 12 June 2017; Accepted 8 November 2017; Published 3 December 2017

Academic Editor: Eleanor E. R. Harris

Copyright © 2017 M. E. Cazzaniga et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) shows a very bad prognosis, even in early stages of disease. Metronomic chemotherapy refers to the minimum biologically effective dose of a chemotherapy agent given as a continuous dosing regimen with no prolonged drug-free breaks that leads to antitumor activity. In the present article, we review preclinical and clinical data of metronomic administration of chemotherapy agents with or without biological agents in TNBC cell lines and patients, contextually reporting data from the VICTOR-2 study in the subgroup of patients with TNBC, in order to stimulate new ideas for the design of clinical trials in this subset of patients.