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International Journal of Cell Biology
Volume 2012, Article ID 736905, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/736905
Review Article

Aggrephagy: Selective Disposal of Protein Aggregates by Macroautophagy

Molecular Cancer Research Group, Institute of Medical Biology, University of Tromsø, 9037 Tromsø, Norway

Received 1 December 2011; Accepted 6 January 2012

Academic Editor: Masaaki Komatsu

Copyright © 2012 Trond Lamark and Terje Johansen. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Protein aggregation is a continuous process in our cells. Some proteins aggregate in a regulated manner required for different vital functional processes in the cells whereas other protein aggregates result from misfolding caused by various stressors. The decision to form an aggregate is largely made by chaperones and chaperone-assisted proteins. Proteins that are damaged beyond repair are degraded either by the proteasome or by the lysosome via autophagy. The aggregates can be degraded by the proteasome and by chaperone-mediated autophagy only after dissolution into soluble single peptide species. Hence, protein aggregates as such are degraded by macroautophagy. The selective degradation of protein aggregates by macroautophagy is called aggrephagy. Here we review the processes of aggregate formation, recognition, transport, and sequestration into autophagosomes by autophagy receptors and the role of aggrephagy in different protein aggregation diseases.