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International Journal of Cell Biology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 243876, 14 pages
Research Article

Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibitors and Forced Oxidative Phosphorylation Synergize in Inducing Cancer Cell Death

1Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126 Milan, Italy
2SysBio Centre of Systems Biology, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126 Milan, Italy

Received 2 December 2012; Revised 22 February 2013; Accepted 28 February 2013

Academic Editor: Claudia Cerella

Copyright © 2013 Roberta Palorini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Cancer cells generally rely mostly on glycolysis rather than oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for ATP production. In fact, they are particularly sensitive to glycolysis inhibition and glucose depletion. On the other hand mitochondrial dysfunctions, involved in the onset of the Warburg effect, are sometimes also associated with the resistance to apoptosis that characterizes cancer cells. Therefore, combined treatments targeting both glycolysis and mitochondria function, exploiting peculiar tumor features, might be lethal for cancer cells. In this study, we show that glucose deprivation and mitochondrial Complex I inhibitors synergize in inducing cancer cell death. In particular, our results reveal that low doses of Complex I inhibitors, ineffective on immortalized cells and in high glucose growth, become specifically cytotoxic on cancer cells deprived of glucose. Importantly, the cytotoxic effect of the inhibitors on cancer cells is strongly enhanced by forskolin, a PKA pathway activator, that we have previously shown to stimulate OXPHOS. Taken together, we demonstrate that induction in cancer cells of a switch from a glycolytic to a more respirative metabolism, obtained by glucose depletion or mitochondrial activity stimulation, strongly increases their sensitivity to low doses of mitochondrial Complex I inhibitors. Our findings might be a valuable approach to eradicate cancer cells.