Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2014, Article ID 841248, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/841248
Review Article

Vitamin D and Its Relationship with Obesity and Muscle

Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Disciplines, “Sapienza” University, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Italy

Received 5 January 2014; Revised 30 March 2014; Accepted 8 April 2014; Published 5 August 2014

Academic Editor: Dennis Villareal

Copyright © 2014 Cristiana Cipriani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. F. Holick, J. A. MacLaughlin, and S. H. Doppelt, “Regulation of cutaneous previtamin D3 photosynthesis in man: skin pigment is not an essential regulator,” Science, vol. 211, no. 4482, pp. 590–593, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. H. E. C. Hanwell, R. Vieth, D. E. C. Cole et al., “Sun exposure questionnaire predicts circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in Caucasian hospital workers in southern Italy,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 121, no. 1-2, pp. 334–337, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. W. D. Fraser and A. M. Milan, “Vitamin D assays: past and present debates, difficulties, and developments,” Calcified Tissue International, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 118–117, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. M. F. Holick, “Sunlight, UV-radiation, vitamin D and skin cancer: how much sunlight do we need?” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 624, pp. 1–15, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. F. Holick, “The cutaneous photosynthesis of previtamin D3: a unique photoendocrine system,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 51–58, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Slominski, J. Zjawiony, J. Wortsman et al., “A novel pathway for sequential transformation of 7-dehydrocholesterol and expression of the P450scc system in mammalian skin,” European Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 271, no. 21, pp. 4178–4188, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. T. Slominski, T. K. Kim, W. Li, A. K. Yi, A. Postlethwaite, and R. C. Tuckey, “The role of CYP11A1 in the production of vitamin D metabolites and their role in the regulation of epidermal functions,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  8. R. St-Arnaud and F. H. Glorieux, “24,25 dihydroxyvitamin D-active metabolite or inactive catabolite?” Endocrinology, vol. 139, no. 8, pp. 341–349, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. L. Clemens, X.-Y. Zhou, and M. Myles, “Serum vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 metabolite concentrations and absorption of vitamin D2 in elderly subjects,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 656–660, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. W. Gray, A. E. Caldas, and D. R. Wilz, “Metabolism and excretion of 3H-1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D3 in healthy adults,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 756–765, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. Jones, “Pharmacokinetics of vitamin D toxicity,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 88, supplement 2, pp. 582S–586S, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. G. Turner, P. H. Anderson, and H. A. Morris, “Vitamin D and bone health,” Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, vol. 72, no. 243, pp. 65–72, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. F. Aloia, R. Dhaliwal, A. Shieh et al., “Vitamin D supplementation increases calcium absorption without a threshold effect,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. M. R. Haussler, G. K. Whitfield, I. Kaneko et al., “Molecular mechanisms of vitamin D action,” Calcified Tissue International, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 77–98, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. R. T. Turner, J. E. Puzas, and M. D. Forte, “In vitro synthesis of 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol by isolated calvarial cells,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 77, no. 10, pp. 5720–5724, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. H. Anderson and G. J. Atkins, “The skeleton as an intracrine organ for vitamin D metabolism,” Molecular Aspects of Medicine, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 397–406, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. G. Turner, M. A. Hanrath, H. A. Morris, G. J. Atkins, and P. H. Anderson, “The local production of 1,25(OH)2D3 promotes osteoblast and osteocyte maturation,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. D. Zehnder, R. Bland, M. C. Williams et al., “Extrarenal expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1α-hydroxylase,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 888–894, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. Takeyama, S. Kitanaka, T. Sato, M. Kobori, J. Yanagisawa, and S. Kato, “25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1α-hydroxylase and vitamin D synthesis,” Science, vol. 277, no. 5333, pp. 1827–1830, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. P. Heany, “Vitamin D: role in the calcium economy,” in Vitamin D, D. Feldman, F. H. Glorieux, and J. W. Pike, Eds., pp. 485–497, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  21. G. Makin, D. Lohnes, V. Byford, R. Ray, and G. Jones, “Target cell metabolism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to calcitroic acid. Evidence for a pathway in kidney and bone involving 24-oxidation,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 262, no. 1, pp. 173–180, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Sakaki, K. Yasuda, A. Kittaka, K. Yamamoto, and T. C. Chen, “CYP24A1 as a potential target for cancer therapy,” Anticancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 97–108, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. C. Cipriani, E. Romagnoli, J. Pepe et al., “Long-term bioavailability after a single oral or intramuscular administration of 600,000 IU of ergocalciferol or cholecalciferol: implications for treatment and prophylaxis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 98, no. 7, pp. 2709–2715, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  24. A. L. Sutton and P. N. MacDonald, “Vitamin D: more than a “bone-a-fide” hormone,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 777–791, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. Bikle, “Nonclassic actions of vitamin D,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 26–34, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. G. Pittas, M. Chung, T. Trikalinos et al., “Systematic review: vitamin D and cardiometabolic outcomes,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 152, no. 5, pp. 307–314, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Didriksen, G. Grimnes, M. S. Hutchinson et al., “The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to vitamin D supplementation is related to genetic factors, BMI, and baseline levels,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 169, no. 5, pp. 559–597, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  28. J. W. Miller, “Editorial: vitamin D and cognitive function in older adults: are we concerned about vitamin D-mentia?” Neurology, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 13–15, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. L. L. Ritterhouse, S. R. Crowe, T. B. Niewold et al., “Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased autoimmune response in healthy individuals and in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 70, no. 9, pp. 1569–1574, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. M. Freedman, A. C. Looker, S. Chang, and B. I. Graubard, “Prospective study of serum vitamin D and cancer mortality in the United States,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 99, no. 21, pp. 1594–1602, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Coin, G. Sergi, N. Minicuci et al., “Fat-free mass and fat mass reference values by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in a 20-80 year-old Italian population,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 87–94, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Coin, S. Giannini, N. Minicuci et al., “Limb fat-free mass and fat mass reference values by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in a 20–80 year-old italian population,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 506–511, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. Vanlint, “Vitamin D and obesity,” Nutrients, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 949–956, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  34. I. González-Molero, G. Rojo-Martínez, S. Morcillo et al., “Hypovitaminosis D and incidence of obesity: a prospective study,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 680–682, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  35. K. S. Vimaleswaran, D. J. Berry, C. Lu et al., “Causal relationship between obesity and vitamin D status: bi-directional Mendelian randomization analysis of multiple cohorts,” PloS Medicine, vol. 10, no. 2, Article ID e1001383, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  36. J. Wortsman, L. Y. Matsuoka, T. C. Chen, Z. Lu, and M. F. Holick, “Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity,” American Journal Clinical Nutrition, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 690–693, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  37. E. B. Mawer, J. Backhouse, C. A. Holman, G. A. Lumb, and S. W. Stanbury, “The distribution and storage of vitamin D and its metabolites in human tissues,” Clinical Science, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 413–431, 1972. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. H. Florez, R. Martinez, W. Chacra, N. Strickman-Stein, and S. Levis, “Outdoor exercise reduces the risk of hypovitaminosis D in the obese,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 103, no. 3–5, pp. 679–681, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. G. Targher, L. Bertolini, L. Scala et al., “Associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations and liver histology in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 517–524, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. Ding, V. Parameswaran, L. Blizzard, J. Burgess, and G. Jones, “Not a simple fat-soluble vitamin: changes in serum 25-(OH)D levels are predicted by adiposity and adipocytokines in older adults,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 268, no. 5, pp. 501–510, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. T. Drincic, L. A. G. Armas, E. E. Van Diest, and R. P. Heaney, “Volumetric dilution, rather than sequestration best explains the low vitamin D status of obesity,” Obesity, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1444–1448, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. T. Romacho, M. Elsen, D. Röhrborn, and J. Eckel, “Adipose tissue and its role in organ crosstalk,” Acta Physiologica, vol. 210, no. 4, pp. 733–753, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. B. Gustafson, A. Hammarstedt, S. Hedjazifar, and U. Smith, “Restricted adipogenesis in hypertrophic obesity: the role of WISP2, WNT, and BMP4,” Diabetes, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 2997–3004, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  44. E. Mueller, “Understanding the variegation of fat: novel regulators of adipocyte differentiation and fat tissue biology,” Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1842, no. 3, pp. 352–357, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  45. C. P. Earthman, L. M. Beckman, K. Masodkar, and S. D. Sibley, “The link between obesity and low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations: considerations and implications,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 387–396, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. Li, M. E. Byrne, E. Chang et al., “1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D hydroxylase in adipocytes,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 112, no. 1–3, pp. 122–126, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. F. McCarty and C. A. Thomas, “PTH excess may promote weight gain by impeding catecholamine-induced lipolysis-implications for the impact of calcium, vitamin D, and alcohol on body weight,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 61, no. 5-6, pp. 535–542, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. K. vinh quốc Lu'o'ng and L. T. Hoàng Nguyễn, “The beneficial role of vitamin D in obesity: possible genetic and cell signaling mechanisms,” Nutritional Journal, vol. 12, p. 89, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. S. Konradsen, H. Ag, F. Lindberg, S. Hexeberg, and R. Jorde, “Serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D is inversely associated with body mass index,” European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 87–91, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. Salehpour, F. Hosseinpanah, F. Shidfar et al., “A 12-week double-blind randomized clinical trial of vitamin D3 supplementation on body fat mass in healthy overweight and obese women,” Nutritional Journal, vol. 11, p. 78, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. M. Sneve, Y. Figenschau, and R. Jorde, “Supplementation with cholecalciferol does not result in weight reduction in overweight and obese subjects,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 159, no. 6, pp. 675–684, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. L. Wamberg, U. Kampmann, H. Stødkilde-Jørgensen, L. Rejnmark, S. B. Pedersen, and B. Richelsen, “Effects of vitamin D supplementation on body fat accumulation, inflammation, and metabolic risk factors in obese adults with low vitamin D levels-results from a randomized trial,” European Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 644–649, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. M. J. Soares, W. Chan She Ping-Delfos, and M. H. Ghanbari, “Calcium and vitamin D for obesity: a review of randomized controlled trials,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 65, no. 9, pp. 994–1004, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. A. Shapses, E. J. Lee, D. Sukumar, R. Durazo-Arvizu, and S. H. Schneider, “The effect of obesity on the relationship between serum parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in women,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 98, no. 5, pp. E886–E890, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. A. C. Ross, J. E. Manson, S. A. Abrams et al., “The 2011 report on dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: what clinicians need to know,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 53–58, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. F. Holick, N. C. Binkley, H. A. Bischoff-Ferrari et al., “Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 96, no. 7, pp. 1911–1930, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. E. Romagnoli, J. Pepe, S. Piemonte, C. Cipriani, and S. Minisola, “Management of endocrine disease: value and limitations of assessing vitamin D nutritional status and advised levels of vitamin D supplementation,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 169, no. 4, pp. R59–R69, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. S. Minisola, L. Colangelo, M. Cilli, C. Cipriani, J. Pepe, and E. Romagnoli, “Intermittent high doses of vitamin d: a need for further studies?” Calcified Tissue International, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 487–488, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. D. Maggio, A. Cherubini, F. Lauretani et al., “25(OH)D serum levels decline with age earlier in women than in men and less efficiently prevent compensatory hyperparathyroidism in older adults,” Journals of Gerontology A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 1414–1419, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. C. Gallagher, V. Yalamanchili, and L. M. Smith, “The effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum 25(OH)D in thin and obese women,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 136, pp. 195–200, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. E. Grethen, R. McClintock, C. E. Gupta et al., “Vitamin D and hyperparathyroidism in obesity,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 96, no. 5, pp. 1320–1326, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. Y. C. Ku, M. E. Liu, C. S. Ku, T. Y. Liu, and S. L. Lin, “Relationship between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease,” World Journal of Cardiology, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 337–346, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. J. Mitri, M. D. Muraru, and A. G. Pittas, “Vitamin D and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 65, no. 9, pp. 1005–1015, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. P. Forman, E. Giovannucci, M. D. Holmes et al., “Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of incident hypertension,” Hypertension, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1063–1069, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. H. Hultin, K. Edfeldt, M. Sundbom, and P. Hellman, “Left-shifted relation between calcium and parathyroid hormone in obesity,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 3973–3981, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A. Salehpour, F. Shidfar, F. Hosseinpanah, M. Vafa, M. Razaghi, and F. Amiri, “Does vitamin D3 supplementation improve glucose homeostasis in overweight or obese women? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1477–1481, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. J. Nagpal, J. N. Pande, and A. Bhartia, “A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the short-term effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on insulin sensitivity in apparently healthy, middle-aged, centrally obese men,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 19–27, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. M. Belenchia, A. K. Tosh, L. S. Hillman, and C. A. Peterson, “Correcting vitamin D insufficiency improves insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 774–781, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. A. Vaidya, J. P. Forman, and J. S. Williams, “Vitamin D and the vascular sensitivity to angiotensin II in obese Caucasians with hypertension,” Journal of Human Hypertension, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 672–678, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A. Zittermann, S. Frisch, H. K. Berthold et al., “Vitamin D supplementation enhances the beneficial effects of weight loss on cardiovascular disease risk markers,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 1321–1327, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. R. Jorde, M. Sneve, P. Torjesen, and Y. Figenschau, “No improvement in cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese subjects after supplementation with vitamin D3 for 1 year: original Article,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 267, no. 5, pp. 462–472, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. J. Torres and M. A. Rubio, “The Endocrine Society's clinical practice guideline on endocrine and nutritional management of the post-bariatric surgery patient: commentary from a European perspective,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 165, no. 2, pp. 171–176, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. Visser, D. J. H. Deeg, and P. Lips, “Low vitamin D and high parathyroid hormone levels as determinants of loss of muscle strength and muscle mass (Sarcopenia): the longitudinal aging study Amsterdam,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 88, no. 12, pp. 5766–5772, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. A. J. Dirks-Naylor and S. Lennon-Edwards, “The effects of vitamin D on skeletal muscle function and cellular signaling,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 125, no. 3–5, pp. 159–168, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. K. E. Broe, T. C. Chen, J. Weinberg, H. A. Bischoff-Ferrari, M. F. Holick, and D. P. Kiel, “A higher dose of vitamin D reduces the risk of falls in nursing home residents: a randomized, multiple-dose study,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 234–239, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. H. Murad, K. B. Elamin, N. O. Abu Elnour et al., “The effect of vitamin D on falls: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 96, no. 10, pp. 2997–3006, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. P. Gerdhem, K. A. M. Ringsberg, K. J. Obrant, and K. Akesson, “Association between 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, physical activity, muscle strength and fractures in the prospective population-based OPRA Study of Elderly Women,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1425–1431, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. H. A. Bischoff-Ferrari, T. Dietrich, E. J. Orav et al., “Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with better lower-extremity function in both active and inactive persons aged ≥60 y,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 752–758, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. C. Annweiler, A.-M. Schott, G. Berrut, B. Fantino, and O. Beauchet, “Vitamin D-related changes in physical performance: a systematic review,” Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 893–898, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. L. Ceglia and S. S. Harris, “Vitamin D and its role in skeletal muscle,” Calcified Tissue International, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 151–162, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  81. D. K. Houston, M. Cesari, L. Ferrucci et al., “Association between vitamin D status and physical performance: the inCHIANTI study,” Journals of Gerontology A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 440–446, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. M. Haroon and O. FitzGerald, “Vitamin D deficiency: subclinical and clinical consequences on musculoskeletal health,” Current Rheumatology Reports, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 286–293, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. H. A. Bischoff, M. Borchers, F. Gudat et al., “In situ detection of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor in human skeletal muscle tissue,” Histochemical Journal, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 19–24, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. O. H. Sorensen, L. B. Lund Bi., and B. Saltin, “Myopathy in bone loss of ageing: improvement by treatment with 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol and calcium,” Clinical Science, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 157–161, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. R. Boland, “Role of vitamin D in skeletal muscle function,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 434–448, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. L. Ceglia, “Vitamin D and its role in skeletal muscle,” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 628–633, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. C. M. Girgis, R. J. Clifton-Bligh, N. Mokbel, K. Cheng, and J. E. Gunton, “Vitamin D signaling regulates proliferation, differentiation and myotube size in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells,” Endocrinology, vol. 155, no. 2, pp. 347–357, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  88. L. A. Garcia, K. K. King, M. G. Ferrini, K. C. Norris, and J. N. Artaza, “1,25(OH)2vitamin D3 stimulates myogenic differentiation by inhibiting cell proliferation and modulating the expression of promyogenic growth factors and myostatin in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells,” Endocrinology, vol. 152, no. 8, pp. 2976–2986, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. Y. Wang and H. F. DeLuca, “Is the vitamin D receptor found in muscle?” Endocrinology, vol. 152, no. 2, pp. 354–363, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. R. Gupta, U. Sharma, N. Gupta et al., “Effect of cholecalciferol and calcium supplementation on muscle strength and energy metabolism in vitamin D-deficient Asian Indians: a randomized, controlled trial,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 445–451, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. M. Pfeifer, B. Begerow, H. W. Minne, K. Suppan, A. Fahrleitner-Pammer, and H. Dobnig, “Effects of a long-term vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls and parameters of muscle function in community-dwelling older individuals,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 315–322, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. L. D. Moreira-Pfrimer, M. A. C. Pedrosa, L. Teixeira, and M. Lazaretti-Castro, “Treatment of vitamin D deficiency increases lower limb muscle strength in institutionalized older people independently of regular physical activity: a randomized double-blind controlled trial,” Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 291–300, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. S. Kukuljan, C. A. Nowson, K. Sanders, and R. M. Daly, “Effects of resistance exercise and fortified milk on skeletal muscle mass, muscle size, and functional performance in middle-aged and older men: an 18-mo randomized controlled trial,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 1864–1873, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. P. Lips, N. Binkley, M. Pfeifer et al., “Once-weekly dose of 8400 IU vitamin D3 compared with placebo: effects on neuromuscular function and tolerability in older adults with vitamin D insufficiency,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 985–991, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. A. M. Kenny, B. Biskup, B. Robbins, G. Marcella, and J. A. Burleson, “Effects of vitamin D supplementation on strength, physical function, and health perception in older, community-dwelling men,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 1762–1767, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. H. A. Bischoff-Ferrari, B. Dawson-Hughes, H. B. Staehelin et al., “Fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin D: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials,” British Medical Journal, vol. 339, Article ID b3692, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. K. M. Sanders, A. L. Stuart, E. J. Williamson et al., “Annual high-dose oral vitamin D and falls and fractures in older women: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 303, no. 18, pp. 1815–1822, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. K. V. Knutsen, A. A. Madar, P. Lagerløv et al., “Does vitamin D improve muscle strength in adults? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among ethnic minorities in Norway,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 194–202, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  99. R. Goswami, M. Vatsa, V. Sreenivas et al., “Skeletal muscle strength in young Asian Indian females after vitamin D and calcium supplementation: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 97, no. 12, pp. 4709–4716, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  100. C. Cipriani, E. Romagnoli, V. Carnevale et al., “Effect of a single oral dose of 600,000 IU of cholecalciferol on muscle strength: a study in young women,” Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 1051–1056, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  101. N. K. Latham, C. S. Anderson, A. Lee, D. A. Bennett, A. Moseley, and I. D. Cameron, “A randomized, controlled trial of quadriceps resistance exercise and vitamin D in frail older people: the frailty interventions trial in elderly subjects (FITNESS),” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 291–299, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. C. Annweiler, A.-M. Schott, G. Berrut, B. Fantino, and O. Beauchet, “Vitamin D-related changes in physical performance: a systematic review,” Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 893–898, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. G. P. Levin, C. Robinson-Cohen, I. H. de Boer et al., “Genetic variants and associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with major clinical outcomes,” Journal of American Medical Association, vol. 308, no. 18, pp. 1898–1905, 2012. View at Google Scholar