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International Journal of Genomics
Volume 2016, Article ID 3460416, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3460416
Review Article

Overview on the Role of Advance Genomics in Conservation Biology of Endangered Species

1The Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430072, China
2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
3Center for Human Genome Research, Cardio-X Institute, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
4National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, College of Plant Sciences and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
5Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan

Received 21 July 2016; Revised 23 October 2016; Accepted 8 November 2016

Academic Editor: Hieu Xuan Cao

Copyright © 2016 Suliman Khan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In the recent era, due to tremendous advancement in industrialization, pollution and other anthropogenic activities have created a serious scenario for biota survival. It has been reported that present biota is entering a “sixth” mass extinction, because of chronic exposure to anthropogenic activities. Various ex situ and in situ measures have been adopted for conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animal species; however, these have been limited due to various discrepancies associated with them. Current advancement in molecular technologies, especially, genomics, is playing a very crucial role in biodiversity conservation. Advance genomics helps in identifying the segments of genome responsible for adaptation. It can also improve our understanding about microevolution through a better understanding of selection, mutation, assertive matting, and recombination. Advance genomics helps in identifying genes that are essential for fitness and ultimately for developing modern and fast monitoring tools for endangered biodiversity. This review article focuses on the applications of advanced genomics mainly demographic, adaptive genetic variations, inbreeding, hybridization and introgression, and disease susceptibilities, in the conservation of threatened biota. In short, it provides the fundamentals for novice readers and advancement in genomics for the experts working for the conservation of endangered plant and animal species.