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International Journal of Genomics
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 6218353, 19 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6218353
Review Article

Circular RNAs: Biogenesis, Function, and a Role as Possible Cancer Biomarkers

1Department of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
2Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Correspondence should be addressed to Damjan Glava─Ź; is.jl-inu.fm@cavalg.najmad

Received 12 May 2017; Revised 29 August 2017; Accepted 28 September 2017; Published 4 December 2017

Academic Editor: Davide Barbagallo

Copyright © 2017 Luka Bolha et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that form covalently closed continuous loop structures, lacking the terminal 5 and 3 ends. CircRNAs are generated in the process of back-splicing and can originate from different genomic regions. Their unique circular structure makes circRNAs more stable than linear RNAs. In addition, they also display insensitivity to ribonuclease activity. Generally, circRNAs function as microRNA (miRNA) sponges and have a regulatory role in transcription and translation. They may be also translated in a cap-independent manner in vivo, to generate specific proteins. In the last decade, next-generation sequencing techniques, especially RNA-seq, have revealed great abundance and also dysregulation of many circRNAs in various diseases, suggesting their involvement in disease development and progression. Regarding their high stability and relatively specific differential expression patterns in tissues and extracellular environment (e.g., body fluids), they are regarded as promising novel biomarkers in cancer. Therefore, we focus this review on describing circRNA biogenesis, function, and involvement in human cancer development and address the potential of circRNAs to be effectively used as novel cancer diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.