Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Hypertension
Volume 2012, Article ID 192567, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/192567
Research Article

Differential Mechanisms of Ang (1-7)-Mediated Vasodepressor Effect in Adult and Aged Candesartan-Treated Rats

1Departments of Pharmacology, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
2Departments of Physiology, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia

Received 29 July 2011; Accepted 7 September 2011

Academic Editor: Robson Santos

Copyright © 2012 S. Bosnyak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Donoghue, F. Hsieh, E. Baronas et al., “A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1–9,” Circulation Research, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. E1–E9, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. R. Tipnis, N. M. Hooper, R. Hyde, E. Karran, G. Christie, and A. J. Turner, “A human homolog of angiotensin-converting enzyme—cloning and functional expression as a captopril-insensitive carboxypeptidase.,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 275, no. 43, pp. 33238–33243, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. J. Trask and C. M. Ferrario, “Angiotensin-(1–7): pharmacology and new perspectives in cardiovascular treatments,” Cardiovascular Drug Reviews, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 162–174, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. G. I. Rice, D. A. Thomas, P. J. Grant, A. J. Turner, and N. M. Hooper, “Evaluation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), its homologue ACE2 and neprilysin in angiotensin peptide metabolism,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 383, no. 1, pp. 45–51, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. A. S. Santos and A. J. Ferreira, “Angiotensin-(1–7) and the renin-angiotensin system,” Current Opinion in Nephrology & Hypertension, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 122–128, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. A. S. Santos, M. J. Campagnole-Santos, N. C. V. Baracho et al., “Characterization of a new angiotensin antagonist selective for angiotensin-(1–7): evidence that the actions of angiotensin-(1–7) are mediated by specific angiotensin receptors,” Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 293–298, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. A. S. Santos, A. C. Simoes e Silva, C. Maric et al., “Angiotensin-(1–7) is an endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor Mas,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 14, pp. 8258–8263, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. H. De Castro, R. A. S. Santos, A. J. Ferreira, M. Bader, N. Alenina, and A. P. Almeida, “Evidence for a functional interaction of the angiotensin-(1–7) receptor Mas with AT(1) and AT(2) receptors in the mouse heart,” Hypertension, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 937–942, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. M. De Souza, A. G. Lopes, C. P. Pizzino et al., “Angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1–7) inhibit the inner cortex Na +-ATPase activity through AT(2) receptor,” Regulatory Peptides, vol. 120, no. 1–3, pp. 167–175, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. D. S. Lara, F. Cavalcante, F. O. Axelband, A. M. De Souza, A. G. Lopes, and C. Caruso-Neves, “Involvement of the Gi/o/cGMP/PKG pathway in the AT 2-mediated inhibition of outer cortex proximal tubule Na +-ATPase by Ang-(1–7),” Biochemical Journal, vol. 395, no. 1, pp. 183–190, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. E. Walters, T. A. Gaspari, and R. E. Widdop, “Angiotensin-(1–7) acts as a vasodepressor agent via angiotensin II type 2 receptors in conscious rats,” Hypertension, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 960–966, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. N. Barber, D. B. Sampey, and R. E. Widdop, “AT2 receptor stimulation enhances antihypertensive effect of AT1 receptor antagonist in hypertensive rats,” Hypertension, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1112–1116, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. X. C. Li and R. E. Widdop, “AT2 receptor-mediated vasodilatation is unmasked by AT 1 receptor blockade in conscious SHR,” The British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 142, no. 5, pp. 821–830, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Bosnyak, I. K. Welungoda, A. Hallberg, M. Alterman, R. E. Widdop, and E. S. Jones, “Stimulation of angiotensin AT(2) receptors by the non-peptide agonist, Compound 21, evokes vasodepressor effects in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats,” The British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 159, no. 3, pp. 709–716, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Wang, G. Takagi, K. Asai et al., “Aging increases aortic MMP-2 activity and angiotensin II in nonhuman primates,” Hypertension, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1308–1316, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. E. Widdop, A. Vinh, D. Henrion, and E. S. Jones, “Vascular angiotensin AT2 receptors in hypertension and ageing,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 386–390, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. Dimitropoulou, R. E. White, L. Fuchs, H. Zhang, J. D. Catravas, and G. O. Carrier, “Angiotensin II relaxes microvessels via the AT(2) receptor and Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels,” Hypertension, vol. 37, no. 2 I, pp. 301–307, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Matrougui, B. I. Levy, and D. Henrion, “Tissue angiotensin II and endothelin-1 modulate differently the response to flow in mesenteric resistance arteries of normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats,” The British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 130, no. 3, pp. 521–526, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. Matrougui, L. Loufrani, C. Heymes, B. I. Lévy, and D. Henrion, “Activation of AT2 receptors by endogenous angiotensin II is involved in flow-induced dilation in rat resistance arteries,” Hypertension, vol. 34, no. 4 I, pp. 659–665, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. E. Widdop, K. Matrougui, B. I. Levy, and D. Henrion, “AT2 receptor-mediated relaxation is preserved after long-term AT1 receptor blockade,” Hypertension, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 516–520, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. Henrion, N. Kubis, and B. I. Lévy, “Physiological and pathophysiological functions of the AT2 subtype receptor of angiotensin II from large arteries to the microcirculation,” Hypertension, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 1150–1157, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. M. Carey, N. L. Howell, X. H. Jin, and H. M. Siragy, “Angiotensin type 2 receptor-mediated hypotension in angiotensin type-1 receptor-blocked rats,” Hypertension, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 1272–1277, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. E. Widdop, E. S. Jones, R. E. Hannan, and T. A. Gaspari, “Angiotensin AT2 receptors: cardiovascular hope or hype?” The British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 140, no. 5, pp. 809–824, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. S. Jones, M. J. Black, and R. E. Widdop, “Angiotensin AT2 receptor contributes to cardiovascular remodelling of aged rats during chronic AT1 receptor blockade,” Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1023–1030, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. Pinaud, A. Bocquet, O. Dumont et al., “Paradoxical role of angiotensin II type 2 receptors in resistance arteries of old rats,” Hypertension, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 96–102, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Peiro, S. Vallejo, F. Gembardt et al., “Endothelial dysfunction through genetic deletion or inhibition of the G protein-coupled receptor Mas: a new target to improve endothelial function,” J. Hypertenss, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2421–2425, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  27. G. Gorelik, L. A. Carbini, and A. G. Scicli, “Angiotensin 1–7 induces bradykinin-mediated relaxation in porcine coronary artery,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 286, no. 1, pp. 403–410, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. Wiemer, L. W. Dobrucki, F. R. Louka, T. Malinski, and H. Heitsch, “AVE 0991, a nonpeptide mimic of the effects of angiotensin-(1–7) on the endothelium,” Hypertension, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 847–852, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. Heitsch, S. Brovkovych, T. Malinski, and G. Wiemer, “Angiotensin-(1–7)-stimulated nitric oxide and superoxide release from endothelial cells,” Hypertension, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 72–76, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. M. Muthalif, I. F. Benter, M. R. Uddin, J. L. Harper, and K. U. Malik, “Signal transduction mechanisms involved in angiotensin-(1–7)-stimulated arachidonic acid release and prostanoid synthesis in rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 284, no. 1, pp. 388–398, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Tesanovic, A. Vinh, T. A. Gaspari, D. Casley, and R. E. Widdop, “Vasoprotective and atheroprotective effects of angiotensin (1–7) in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1606–1613, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. E. Hannan, E. A. Davis, and R. E. Widdop, “Functional role of angiotensin II AT(2) receptor in modulation of AT(1) receptor-mediated contraction in rat uterine artery: involvement of bradykinin and nitric oxide,” The British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 140, no. 5, pp. 987–995, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. S. Zwart, E. A. Davis, and R. E. Widdop, “Modulation of AT1 receptor-mediated contraction of rat uterine artery by AT(2) receptors,” The British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 125, no. 7, pp. 1429–1436, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. W. W. Batenburg, I. M. Garrelds, C. C. Bernasconi et al., “Angiotensin II type 2 receptor-mediated vasodilation in human coronary microarteries,” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 19, pp. 2296–2301, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus