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International Journal of Hypertension
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 521783, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/521783
Review Article

The Angiotensin-Melatonin Axis

1Center of Innovation, Technology and Education—(CITE), Camilo Castelo Branco University (UNICASTELO), São José dos Campos Technology Park, Presidente Dutra Road Km 138, 12247-004 São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil
2Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
3Cardiovascular Research, Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13125 Berlin, Germany

Received 30 October 2012; Revised 18 December 2012; Accepted 19 December 2012

Academic Editor: Patrick Vanderheyden

Copyright © 2013 Luciana A. Campos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Accumulating evidence indicates that various biological and neuroendocrine circadian rhythms may be disrupted in cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. These circadian alterations may contribute to the progression of disease. Our studies direct to an important role of angiotensin II and melatonin in the modulation of circadian rhythms. The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may modulate melatonin synthesis, a hormone with well-established roles in regulating circadian rhythms. Angiotensin production in the central nervous system may not only influence hypertension but also appears to affect the circadian rhythm of blood pressure. Drugs acting on RAS have been proven effective in the treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders including hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM). On the other hand, since melatonin is capable of ameliorating metabolic abnormalities in DM and insulin resistance, the beneficial effects of RAS blockade could be improved through combined RAS blocker and melatonin therapy. Contemporary research is evidencing the existence of specific clock genes forming central and peripheral clocks governing circadian rhythms. Further research on the interaction between these two neurohormones and the clock genes governing circadian clocks may progress our understanding on the pathophysiology of disease with possible impact on chronotherapeutic strategies.