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International Journal of Inflammation
Volume 2012, Article ID 932725, 7 pages
Review Article

Proinflammatory Effects of C-Peptide in Different Tissues

Department of Internal Medicine II, Cardiology, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Alle 23, 89081 Ulm, Germany

Received 3 February 2012; Revised 23 March 2012; Accepted 27 April 2012

Academic Editor: Ichiro Manabe

Copyright © 2012 Dusica Vasic and Daniel Walcher. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Atherosclerosis is well known as an inflammatory disease that can lead to clinical complications such as heart attack or stroke. C-peptide as a cleavage product of proinsulin is in the last few decades known as an active peptide with a number of different effects on microvascular and macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetic patients. Patients with insulin resistance and early type 2 diabetes show elevated levels of C-peptide in blood. Several last findings demonstrated deposition of C-peptide in the vessel wall in ApoE-deficient mice and induction of local inflammation. Besides that, C-peptide has proliferative effects on human mesangial cells. This review discusses recently published proinflammatory effects of C-peptide in different tissues.