Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 169829, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/169829
Review Article

Crystal Growth Behaviors of Silicon during Melt Growth Processes

Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan

Received 31 August 2011; Accepted 29 December 2011

Academic Editor: Teh Tan

Copyright © 2012 Kozo Fujiwara. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. Fujiwara, W. Pan, N. Usami et al., “Growth of structure-controlled polycrystalline silicon ingots for solar cells by casting,” Acta Materialia, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 3191–3197, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. Fujiwara, W. Pan, K. Sawada et al., “Directional growth method to obtain high quality polycrystalline silicon from its melt,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 292, no. 2, pp. 282–285, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. Nakajima, K. Kutsukake, K. Fujiwara, K. Morishita, and S. Ono, “Arrangement of dendrite crystals grown along the bottom of Si ingots using the dendritic casting method by controlling thermal conductivity under crucibles,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 319, no. 1, pp. 13–18, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. N. Stoddard, B. Wu, I. Witting et al., “Casting single crystal silicon: novel defect profiles from BP solar's mono2 wafers,” Diffusion and Defect Data Part B, vol. 131–133, pp. 1–8, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. B. Wu and R. Clark, “Influence of inclusion on nucleation of silicon casting for photovoltaic (PV) application,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 318, no. 1, pp. 200–207, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. H. Zhang, L. Zheng, X. Ma, B. Zhao, C. Wang, and F. Xu, “Nucleation and bulk growth control for high efficiency silicon ingot casting,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 318, no. 1, pp. 283–287, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. Y. Wang, S. L. Hsu, C. C. Fei, K. M. Yei, W. C. Hsu, and C. W. Lan, “Grain control using spot cooling in multi-crystalline silicon crystal growth,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 311, no. 2, pp. 263–267, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Y. Nose, I. Takahashi, W. Pan, N. Usami, K. Fujiwara, and K. Nakajima, “Floating cast method to realize high-quality Si bulk multicrystals for solar cells,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 311, no. 2, pp. 228–231, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. M. Yeh, C. K. Hseih, W. C. Hsu, and C. W. Lan, “High-quality multi-crystalline silicon growth for solar cells by grain-controlled directional solidification,” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 265–271, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Tokairin, K. Fujiwara, K. Kutsukake, N. Usami, and K. Nakajima, “Formation mechanism of a faceted interface: in situ observation of the Si(100) crystal-melt interface during crystal growth,” Physical Review B, vol. 80, no. 17, Article ID 174108, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. Fujiwara, R. Gotoh, X. B. Yang, H. Koizumi, J. Nozawa, and S. Uda, “Morphological transformation of a crystal-melt interface during unidirectional growth of silicon,” Acta Materialia, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 4700–4708, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. K. Fujiwara, K. Maeda, N. Usami et al., “In situ observation of Si faceted dendrite growth from low-degree-of-undercooling melts,” Acta Materialia, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 2663–2668, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. Pohl, M. Müller, A. Seidl, and K. Albe, “Formation of parallel (1 1 1) twin boundaries in silicon growth from the melt explained by molecular dynamics simulations,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 312, no. 8, pp. 1411–1415, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. Duffar and A. Nadri, “On the twinning occurrence in bulk semiconductor crystal growth,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 955–960, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. A. Jackson, K. M. Beatty, and K. A. Gudgel, “An analytical model for non-equilibrium segregation during crystallization,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 271, no. 3-4, pp. 481–494, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. A. Jackson, Liquid Metal and Solidification, American Society for Metals, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, 1958.
  17. K. A. Jackson, “On the twinning occurrence in bulk semiconductor crystal growth,” Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 7–13, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  18. D. J. Eaglesham, A. E. White, L. C. Feldman, N. Moriya, and D. C. Jacobson, “Equilibrium shape of Si,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 70, no. 11, pp. 1643–1646, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. W. Geis, H. I. Smith, B. Y. Tsaur, J. C. C. Fan, D. J. Silversmith, and R. W. Mountain, “Zone-melting recrystallization of Si films with a moveable-strip-heater oven,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 129, no. 12, pp. 2812–2818, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. W. Geis, H. I. Smith, D. J. Silversmith, R. W. Mountain, and C. V. Thomson, “Solidification-front modulation to entrain subboundaries in zone-melting recrystallization of Si on SiO2,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 130, no. 5, pp. 1178–1183, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. C. C. Fan, B. Y. Tsaur, and M. W. Geis, “Graphite-strip-heater zone-melting recrystallization of Si films,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 453–483, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. E. H. Lee and G. A. Rozgonyi, “Modes of growth stability breakdown in the seeded crystallization of microzone-melted silicon on insulator,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 70, no. 1-2, pp. 223–229, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. Pfeiffer, S. Paine, G. H. Gilmer, W. van Saarloos, and K. W. West, “Pattern formation resulting from faceted growth in zone-melted thin films,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 54, no. 17, pp. 1944–1947, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. Dutartre, M. Haond, and D. Bensahel, “Study of the solidification front of Si films in lamp zone melting controlled by patterning the underlying SiO2,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 632–635, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. S. Im, H. Tomita, and C. V. Thompson, “Cellular and dendritic morphologies on stationary and moving liquid-solid interfaces in zone-melting recrystallization,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 685–687, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. Pfeiffer, A. E. Gelman, K. A. Jackson, K. W. West, and J. L. Batstone, “Subboundary-free zone-melt recrystallization of thin-film silicon,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 51, no. 16, pp. 1256–1258, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. A. Williams, R. A. McMahon, and H. Ahmed, “Dynamic morphology of the nonequilibrium solid-melt interface in silicon,” Physical Review B, vol. 39, no. 14, pp. 10467–10469, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. K. Shangguan and J. D. Hunt, “Dynamical study of the pattern formation of faceted cellular array growth,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 856–870, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. U. Landman, W. D. Luedtke, R. N. Barnett et al., “Faceting at the silicon (100) crystal-melt interface: theory and experiment,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 155–158, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. U. Landman, W. D. Luedtke, M. W. Ribarsky, R. N. Barnett, and C. L. Cleveland, “Molecular-dynamics simulations of epitaxial crystal growth from the melt. I. Si(100),” Physical Review B, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 4637–4646, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. Fujiwara, K. Nakajima, T. Ujihara et al., “In situ observations of crystal growth behavior of silicon melt,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 243, no. 2, pp. 275–282, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. Fujiwara, Y. Obinata, T. Ujihara, N. Usami, G. Sazaki, and K. Nakajima, “Grain growth behaviors of polycrystalline silicon during melt growth processes,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 266, no. 4, pp. 441–448, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Tokairin, K. Fujiwara, K. Kutsukake, N. Usami, and K. Nakajima, “Formation mechanism of a faceted interface: in situ observation of the Si (100) crystal-melt interface during crystal growth,” Physical Review B, vol. 80, no. 17, Article ID 174108, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. W. W. Mullins and R. F. Sekerka, “Stability of a planar interface during solidification of a dilute binary alloy,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 444–451, 1964. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. W. Kurz and D. J. Fisher, Fundamentals of Solidification, Trans Tech Publications, Dürnten, Switzerland, 4th revised edition, 1998.
  36. W. M. Rohsenow, J. P. Hartnett, and E. N. Ganic, Handbook of Heat Transfer Fundamentals, chapter 1, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1985.
  37. K. W. Yi, H. T. Chung, H. W. Lee, and J. K. Yoon, “The effects of pulling rates on the shape of crystal/melt interface in Si single crystal growth by the Czochralski method,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 132, no. 3-4, pp. 451–460, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. M. Beatty and K. A. Jackson, “Monte Carlo modeling of silicon crystal growth,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 211, no. 1–4, pp. 13–17, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. Buta, M. Asta, and J. J. Hoyt, “Kinetic coefficient of steps at the Si(111) crystal-melt interface from molecular dynamics simulations,” Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 127, no. 7, Article ID 074703, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  40. P. Chen, Y. L. Tsai, and C. W. Lan, “Phase field modeling of growth competition of silicon grains,” Acta Materialia, vol. 56, no. 15, pp. 4114–4122, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. K. Fujiwara, S. Tsumura, M. Tokairin et al., “Growth behavior of faceted Si crystals at grain boundary formation,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 312, no. 1, pp. 19–23, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. W. Miller, “Some remarks on the undercooling of the Si (1 1 1) facet and the “monte Carlo modeling of silicon crystal growth” by Kirk M. Beatty & Kenneth A. Jackson, J. Crystal Growth 211 (2000) 13,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 325, no. 1, pp. 101–103, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. K. Fujiwara, K. Maeda, N. Usami, G. Sazaki, Y. Nose, and K. Nakajima, “Formation mechanism of parallel twins related to Si-facetted dendrite growth,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 81–84, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. H. F. Mataré, “Carrier transport at grain boundaries in semiconductors,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 2605–2631, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. C. R. M. Grovenor, “Grain-boundaries in semiconductors,” Journal of Physics C, vol. 18, no. 21, pp. 4079–4119, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  46. K. Yang, G. H. Schwuttke, and T. F. Ciszek, “Structural and electrical characterization of crystallographic defects in silicon ribbons,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 301–310, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  47. A. Bary and G. Nouet, “Electrical activity of the first- and second-order twins and grain boundaries in silicon,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 435–438, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. Rizk, A. Ihlal, and X. Portier, “Evolution of electrical activity and structure of nickel precipitates with the treatment temperature of a Σ=25 silicon bicrystal,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 1875–1880, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. Z. J. Wang, S. Tsurekawa, K. Ikeda, T. Sekiguchi, and T. Watanabe, “Relationship between electrical activity and grain boundary structural configuration in polycrystalline silicon,” Interface Science, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 197–205, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. Chen, T. Sekiguchi, D. Yang, F. Yin, K. Kido, and S. Tsurekawa, “Electron-beam-induced c1urrent study of grain boundaries in multlcrystalline silicon,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 96, no. 10, pp. 5490–5495, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. Chen and T. Sekiguchi, “Carrier recombination activity and structural properties of small-angle grain boundaries in multicrystalline silicon,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 6489–6497, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. H. Sawada and H. Ichinose, “Structure of {112} Σ3 boundary in silicon and diamond,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 44, no. 8-9, pp. 2327–2330, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. N. Sakaguchi, H. Ichinose, and S. Watanabe, “Atomic structure of faceted Σ3 CSL grain boundary in silicon: HRTEM and Ab-initio calculation,” Materials Transactions, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 2585–2589, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. N. Sakaguchi, M. Miyake, S. Watanabe, and H. Takahashi, “EELS and Ab-Initio study of faceted CSL boundary in silicon,” Materials Transactions, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 276–279, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. P. Keblinski, S. R. Phillpot, D. Wolf, and H. Gleiter, “Thermodynamic criterion for the stability of amorphous intergranular films in covalent materials,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 77, no. 14, pp. 2965–2968, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. Kohyama and R. Yamamoto, “Tight-binding study of grain boundaries in Si: energies and atomic structures of twist grain boundaries,” Physical Review B, vol. 49, no. 24, pp. 17102–17117, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. Von Alfthan, P. D. Haynes, K. Kaski, and A. P. Sutton, “Are the structures of twist grain boundaries in silicon ordered at 0 K?” Physical Review Letters, vol. 96, no. 5, Article ID 055505, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. I. V. Markov, Crystal Growth for Beginners, World Scientific, Singapore, 1995.
  59. A. Voigt, E. Wolf, and H. P. Strunk, “Grain orientation and grain boundaries in cast multicrystalline silicon,” Materials Science and Engineering B, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 202–206, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. H. P. Iwata, U. Lindefelt, S. Öberg, and P. R. Briddon, “Energies and electronic properties of isolated and interacting twin boundaries in 3C-SiC, Si, and diamond,” Physical Review B, vol. 68, no. 11, Article ID 113202, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. C. Raffy, J. Furthmüller, and F. Bechstedt, “Properties of hexagonal polytypes of group-IV elements from first-principles calculations,” Physical Review B, vol. 66, no. 7, Article ID 075201, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  62. V. V. Voronkov, “Growth of a silicon crystal with one dislocation,” Kristallografiya, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 1145–1151, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  63. D. T. J. Hurle, “A mechanism for twin formation during Czochralski and encapsulated vertical Bridgman growth of III-V compound semiconductors,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 147, no. 3-4, pp. 239–250, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. K. Kutsukake, T. Abe, N. Usami, K. Fujiwara, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Formation mechanism of twin boundaries during crystal growth of silicon,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 556–559, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. E. Billig, “Growth of monocrystals of germanium from an undercooled melt,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series A, vol. 229, no. 1178, pp. 346–363, 1955. View at Google Scholar
  66. R. S. Wagner, “On the growth of germanium dendrites,” Acta Metallurgica, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 57–60, 1960. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. D. R. Hamilton and R. G. Seidensticker, “Propagation mechanism of germanium dendrites,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1165–1168, 1960. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. K. K. Leung and H. W. Kui, “Microstructures of undercooled Si,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 1216–1218, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. K. Nagashio and K. Kuribayashi, “Growth mechanism of twin-related and twin-free facet Si dendrites,” Acta Materialia, vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 3021–3029, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. R. Y. Wang, W. H. LI, and L. M. Hogan, “Faceted growth of silicon crystals in Al-Si alloys,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1233–1243, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. R. W. Cahn, “Twinned crystals,” Advances in Physics, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 363–445, 1954. View at Google Scholar
  72. M. Kitamura, N. Usami, T. Sugawara et al., “Growth of multicrystalline Si with controlled grain boundary configuration by the floating zone technique,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 280, no. 3-4, pp. 419–424, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. K. Fujiwara, H. Fukuda, N. Usami, K. Nakajima, and S. Uda, “Growth mechanism of the Si 110 faceted dendrite,” Physical Review B, vol. 81, no. 22, Article ID 224106, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. K. Fujiwara, K. Maeda, N. Usami, and K. Nakajima, “Growth mechanism of Si-faceted dendrites,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 101, no. 5, Article ID 055503, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. X. Yang, K. Fujiwara, R. Gotoh et al., “Effect of twin spacing on the growth velocity of Si faceted dendrites,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 97, no. 17, Article ID 172104, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. S. O'Hara and A. I. Bennett, “Web growth of semiconductors,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 686–693, 1964. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. D. L. Barrett, E. H. Myers, D.R. Hamilton, and A. I. Bennett, “Growth of wide, flat crystals of silicon web,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 118, no. 6, pp. 952–957, 1971. View at Google Scholar
  78. C. F. Lau and H. W. Kui, “Microstructures of undercooled germanium,” Acta Metallurgica Et Materialia, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 323–327, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. D. Li and D. M. Herlach, “Direct measurements of free crystal growth in deeply undercooled melts of semiconducting materials,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 77, no. 9, pp. 1801–1804, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. T. Aoyama, Y. Takamura, and K. Kuribayashi, “Dendrite growth processes of silicon and germanium from highly undercooled melts,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 1333–1339, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. X. Yang, K. Fujiwara, K. Maeda, J. Nozawa, H. Koizumi, and S. Uda, “Dependence of Si faceted dendrite growth velocity on undercooling,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 98, no. 1, Article ID 012113, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. I. Takahashi, N. Usami, K. Kutsukake, G. Stokkan, K. Morishita, and K. Nakajima, “Generation mechanism of dislocations during directional solidification of multicrystalline silicon using artificially designed seed,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 312, no. 7, pp. 897–901, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. N. Usami, R. Yokoyama, I. Takahashi, K. Kutsukake, K. Fujiwara, and K. Nakajima, “Relationship between grain boundary structures in Si multicrystals and generation of dislocations during crystal growth,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 107, no. 1, Article ID 013511, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. V. Ganapati, S. Schoenfelder, S. Castellanos et al., “Infrared birefringence imaging of residual stress and bulk defects in multicrystalline silicon,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 108, no. 6, Article ID 063528, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. G. Sarau, S. Christiansen, M. Holla, and W. Seifert, “Correlating internal stresses, electrical activity and defect structure on the micrometer scale in EFG silicon ribbons,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 2264–2271, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  86. S. Nakano, X. J. Chen, B. Gao, and K. Kakimoto, “Numerical analysis of cooling rate dependence on dislocation density in multicrystalline silicon for solar cells,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 318, no. 1, pp. 280–282, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. G. Stokkan, “Relationship between dislocation density and nucleation of multicrystalline silicon,” Acta Materialia, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 3223–3229, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  88. A. A. Istratov, T. Buonassisi, R. J. McDonald et al., “Metal content of multicrystalline silicon for solar cells and its impact on minority carrier diffusion length,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 94, no. 10, pp. 6552–6559, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. B. Gao, S. Nakano, and K. Kakimoto, “Effect of crucible cover material on impurities of multicrystalline silicon in a unidirectional solidification furnace,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 318, no. 1, pp. 255–258, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. T. Buonassisi, A. A. Istratov, M. A. Marcus et al., “Engineering metal-impurity nanodefects for low-cost solar cells,” Nature Materials, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 676–679, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  91. G. Coletti, P. C.P. Bronsveld, G. Hahn et al., “Impact of metal contamination in silicon solar cells,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 879–890, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  92. P. Gundel, M. C. Schubert, W. Kwapil et al., “Micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy on metal precipitates in silicon,” Physica Status Solidi—Rapid Research Letters, vol. 3, no. 7-8, pp. 230–232, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. T. Buonassisi, A. A. Istratov, M. D. Pickett et al., “Micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy on metal precipitates in silicon,” Progress in Photovoltaics, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 513–531, 2006. View at Google Scholar