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International Journal of Pediatrics
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 2382951, 10 pages
Research Article

Implementation and Evaluation of an Intervention for Children in Afghanistan at Risk for Substance Use or Actively Using Psychoactive Substances

1United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Kabul, Afghanistan
2United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna, Austria
3Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement, US Department of State, Washington, DC, USA
4United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Islamabad, Pakistan
5Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
6UNC Horizons and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
7Departments of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Hendrée E. Jones

Received 22 January 2017; Revised 11 May 2017; Accepted 23 May 2017; Published 5 July 2017

Academic Editor: F. J. Kaskel

Copyright © 2017 Abdul Subor Momand et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The present study examined the impact of a novel intervention for children at risk for substance use or actively using substances that was provided to 783 children between 4 and 18 years of age in Afghanistan. They received the Child Intervention for Living Drug-free (CHILD) protocol while in outpatient or residential treatment. CHILD included age-appropriate literacy and numeracy, drug education, basic living safety, and communication and trauma coping skills. A battery of measures examined multiple child health domains at treatment’s start and end and 12 weeks later. For younger children, there were no significant Gender or Gender X Time effects (all p’s > .16 and .35, resp.). The time main effect was significant for all outcomes (all p’s < .00192, the prespecified per-comparison error rate). Post hoc testing showed significant improvements from residential treatment entry to completion for all scales. For older children, a time main effect was significant for (all p’s < .00192, the prespecified per-comparison error rate) all but one outcome. Community follow-up means were significantly lower than residential treatment entry means. CHILD had a positive impact on children, and treatment impact endured from posttreatment to follow-up assessment.