Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Polymer Science
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 307525, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/307525
Research Article

Synthesis, Electrical Conductivity, and Dielectric Behavior of Polyaniline/V2O5 Composites

1Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025, India
2Material Science Group, Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi 110025, India

Received 31 March 2013; Accepted 12 June 2013

Academic Editor: Enrique Vigueras-Santiago

Copyright © 2013 Shama Islam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Aguilar-Hernández and K. Potje-Kamloth, “Evaluation of the electrical conductivity of polypyrrole polymer composites,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1700–1711, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. Dey, A. De, and S. K. De, “Electrical transport and dielectric relaxation in Fe3O4-polypyrrole hybrid nanocomposites,” Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, vol. 17, no. 37, pp. 5895–5910, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. J. Mathai, S. Saravanan, M. R. Anantharaman, S. Venkitachalam, and S. Jayalekshmi, “Characterization of low dielectric constant polyaniline thin film synthesized by ac plasma polymerization technique,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 240–245, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. K. Vishnuvardhan, V. R. Kulkarni, C. Basavaraja, and S. C. Raghavendra, “Synthesis, characterization and a.c. conductivity of polypyrrole/Y2O3 composites,” Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 77–83, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. W. Chen, L. Xingwei, X. Gi, W. Zhaoquang, and Z. Wenquing, “Magnetic and conducting particles: preparation of polypyrrole layer on Fe3O4 nanospheres,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 218, no. 1–4, pp. 216–222, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. S. D. Patil, S. C. Raghavendra, M. Revansiddappa, P. Narsimha, and M. V. N. A. Prasad, “Synthesis, transport and dielectric properties of polyaniline/Co3O4 composites,” Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 89–92, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. Li and G. Shi, “Synthesis and electrochemical applications of the composites of conducting polymers and chemically converted graphene,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 56, no. 28, pp. 10737–10747, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Y. Chen, C. Xu, and Y. Wang, “Viscoelasticity behaviors of lightly cured natural rubber/zinc dimethacrylate composites,” Polymer Composites, vol. 33, pp. 1206–1214, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Matsunaga, H. Daifuku, T. Nakajima, and T. Gawa-goe, “Development of polyaniline-lithium secondary battery,” Polymers for Advanced Technologies, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 33–39, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. G. Gustafsson, Y. Cao, G. M. Treacy, F. Klavetter, N. Colaneri, and A. J. Heeger, “Flexible light-emitting diodes made from soluble conducting polymers,” Nature, vol. 357, no. 6378, pp. 477–479, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Olcani, M. Abe, M. Ezoe, T. Doi, T. Miyata, and A. Miyake, “Synthesis and properties of high-molecular-weight soluble polyaniline and its application to the 4MB-capacity barium ferrite floppy disk's antistatic coating,” Synthetic Metals, vol. 57, p. 3969, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  12. J. Yang, J. Hou, W. Zhu, M. Xu, and M. Wan, “Substituted polyaniline-polypropylene film composites: preparation and properties,” Synthetic Metals, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 283–289, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. C. O. Yoon, M. Reghu, D. Moses, Y. Cao, and A. J. Heeger, “Transports in blends of conducting polymers,” Synthetic Metals, vol. 69, no. 1-3, pp. 255–258, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. Murugesan and E. Subramanian, “Charge dynamics in conducting polyaniline-metal oxalate composites,” Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 529–535, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. C. Brosseau, P. Queffelec, and P. Talbot, “Microwave characterization of filled polymers,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 89, no. 8, article 4532, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. A. G. Mac Diarmid, J. C. Chiang, M. Halpern et al., ““Polyaniline”: interconversion of metallic and insulating forms,” Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals, vol. 121, no. 1–4, pp. 173–180, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. S. P. Armes and J. F. Miller, “Optimum reaction conditions for the polymerization of aniline in aqueous solution by ammonium persulphate,” Synthetic Metals, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 385–393, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. M. L. Gautu and P. J. G. Romero, “Synthesis and characterization of intercalate phases in the organic-inorganic polyaniline/V2O5 system,” Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol. 147, no. 2, pp. 601–608, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. W. Jia, E. Segal, D. Kornemandel, Y. Lamhot, M. Narkis, and A. Siegmann, “Polyaniline-DBSA/organophilic clay nanocomposites: synthesis and characterization,” Synthetic Metals, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 115–120, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. J. Su and N. Kuramoto, “Processable polyaniline-titanium dioxide nanocomposites: effect of titanium dioxide on the conductivity,” Synthetic Metals, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 147–153, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. S. Wang, Z. Tan, Y. Li, L. Sun, and T. Zhang, “Synthesis, characterization and thermal analysis of polyaniline/ZrO2 composites,” Thermochimica Acta, vol. 441, no. 2, pp. 191–194, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. M. A. M. Khan, M. Zulfequar, A. Kumar, and M. Husain, “Conduction mechanism in amorphous Se75In25-xPb x films,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 179–183, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. T. Kim, J. Muster, V. Krstic et al., “Field-effect transistor made of individual V2O5 nanofibers,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 76, no. 14, pp. 1875–1877, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Q. H. Wu, A. Thissen, W. Jaegermann, and M. Liu, “Photoelectron spectroscopy study of oxygen vacancy on vanadium oxides surface,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 236, no. 1–4, pp. 473–478, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. C. V. Ramana, R. J. Smith, O. M. Hussain, C. C. Chusuei, and C. M. Julien, “Correlation between growth conditions, microstructure, and optical properties in pulsed-laser-deposited V2O5 thin films,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1213–1219, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. B. V. S. Lakshmi, V. Ali, A. M. Siddiqui, P. K. Kulriya, and M. Zulfequar, “Optical studies of SHI Irradiated poly(o-toluidine)-PVC blends,” The European Physical Journal—Applied Physics, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 251–255, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. Z. H. Khani, M. M. Malik, M. Zulfequar, and M. Husain, “Electrical conduction mechanism in a-Se80-xTexGa20 films (0<or=x<or=20),” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, vol. 7, no. 47, pp. 8979–8991, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. M. Grant and I. P. Batra, “Band structure of polyacetylene, (CH)x,” Solid State Communications, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 225–229, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. Fink and G. Leising, “Momentum-dependent dielectric functions of oriented trans-polyacetylene,” Physical Review B, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 5320–5328, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. Dutta, S. Biswas, M. Ghosh, S. K. De, and S. Chatterjee, “The dc and ac conductivity of polyaniline-polyvinyl alcohol blends,” Synthetic Metals, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 455–461, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. De, A. Dey, and S. K. Dea, “Charge transport mechanism of vanadium pentoxide xerogel-polyaniline nanocomposite,” The European Physical Journal, vol. 46, pp. 355–361, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. A. J. Heeger, S. Kivelson, J. R. Schrieffer, and W.-P. Su, “Solitons in conducting polymers,” Reviews of Modern Physics, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 781–850, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Dey, A. De, and S. K. De, “Electrical transport and dielectric relaxation in Fe3O4-polypyrrole hybrid nanocomposites,” Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, vol. 17, no. 37, pp. 5895–5910, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. N. N. Mallikarjuna, S. K. Manohar, P. V. Kulkarni, A. Venkataraman, and T. M. Aminabhavi, “Novel high dielectric constant nanocomposites of polyaniline dispersed with γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 1868–1874, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. Singh, R. P. Tandon, V. S. Panwar, and S. Chandra, “Low-frequency ac conduction in lightly doped polypyrrole films,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 2504–2511, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. N. Musahwar, M. A. Majeed Khan, M. Husain, and M. Zulfequar, “Dielectric and electrical properties of Se-S glassy alloys,” Physica B: Condensed Matter, vol. 396, no. 1-2, pp. 81–86, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. R. Elliott, “A theory of a.c. conduction in chalcogenide glasses,” Philosophical Magazine, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1291–1304, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. R. Elliott, “Temperature dependence of a.c. conductivity of chalcogenide glasses,” Philosophical Magazine B, vol. 37, pp. 553–560, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. J. C. Giuntini, J. V. Zanchetta, D. Jullien, R. Eholie, and P. Houenou, “Temperature dependence of dielectric losses in chalcogenide glasses,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 57–62, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. W. K. Lee, J. F. Liu, and A. S. Nowick, “Limiting behavior of ac conductivity in ionically conducting crystals and glasses: a new universality,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 67, no. 12, pp. 1559–1561, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. H. K. Chaudhari and D. S. Kekler, “X-ray diffraction study of doped polyaniline,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 15–18, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. B. P. Barbero and L. E. Cadus, “V2O5-SmVO4 mechanical mixture: oxidative dehydrogenation of propane,” Applied Catalysis A: General, vol. 237, no. 1-2, pp. 263–273, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. I. Pankove, Optical processes in Semiconductors, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 1971.
  44. A. Abdel-Aal, “Dielectric relaxation in CdxInSe9-x chalcogenide thin films,” Egyptian Journal of Solids, vol. 29, p. 293, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  45. G. D. Cody, C. R. Wronski, B. Abeles, R. B. Stephens, and B. Brooks, “Optical characterization of amorphous silicon hydride films,” Solar Cells, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 227–243, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. Tauc, Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, Plenum Press, NewYork, NY, USA, 1974.
  47. E. Marquez, J. Ramirez-Malo, P. Villares, R. Jimenez-Garay, P. J. S. Ewen, and A. E. Owen, “Calculation of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous arsenic sulphide films from their transmission spectra,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 535–541, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. N. F. Mott and E. A. Davis, Electronics Processes in Non-Crystalline Materials, Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1979.