Mandible and paragnaths of larval stages (II) to (IV) of Homarus gammarus. Right mandible in anterior (top) and posterior view (bottom). Note that (II) mandible and (IV) mandible are left mandibles flipped, while (III) mandible is a right mandible. (II) Mandible is still attached to labrum. (III) Paragnath shown in situ, marked by hand due to low contrast against mandible. (II) Paragnath, right, in posterior view. lb = labrum; md = mandible; pi = pars incisivus; pl = palpus; pm = pars molaris.