Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Aging Research
Volume 2012, Article ID 316943, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/316943
Review Article

Rationale for Antioxidant Supplementation in Sarcopenia

1Dipartimento di Scienze Gerontologiche, Geriatriche e Fisiatriche, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo Francesco Vito 1, 00168 Roma, Italy
2Institut du Vieillissement, Université de Toulouse, 31000 Toulouse, France

Received 8 August 2011; Accepted 23 November 2011

Academic Editor: Dominique Meynial-Denis

Copyright © 2012 Francesco Cerullo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Harman, “The free radical theory of aging,” Antioxid Redox Signal, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 557–561, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  2. Z. A. Medvedev, “An attempt at a rational classification of theories of ageing,” Biological Reviews of The Cambridge Philosophical Society, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 375–398, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  3. B. T. Weinert and P. S. Timiras, “Theories of aging,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 1706–1716, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  4. S. von Haehling, J. E. Morley, and S. D. Anker, “An overview of sarcopenia: facts and numbers on prevalence and clinical impact,” The Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 129–133, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. R. Roubenoff, “Sarcopenia and its implications for the elderly,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. S40–S47, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. E. J. Metter, L. A. Talbot, M. Schrager, and R. Conwit, “Skeletal muscle strength as a predictor of all-cause mortality in healthy men,” The Journals of Gerontology Series A, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. B359–B365, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. O. Pansarasa, L. Castagna, B. Colombi, J. Vecchiet, G. Felzani, and F. Marzatico, “Age and sex differences in human skeletal muscle: role of reactive oxygen species,” Free Radical Research, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 287–293, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. G. Fanò, P. Mecocci, J. Vecchiet et al., “Age and sex influence on oxidative damage and functional status in human skeletal muscle,” Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 345–351, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. M. Cesari, M. Pahor, B. Bartali et al., “Antioxidants and physical performance in elderly persons: the Invecchiare in Chianti (InCHIANTI) study,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 289–294, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  10. D. Harman, “Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry,” The Journals of Gerontology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 298–300, 1956. View at Google Scholar
  11. D. Harman, “The biologic clock: the mitochondria?” The Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 145–147, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  12. J. Miquel, A. C. Economos, J. Fleming, and J. E. Johnson Jr., “Mitochondrial role in cell aging,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 575–591, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. J. Sastre, F. V. Pallardó, J. García de la Asunción, and J. Viña, “Mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging,” Free Radical Research, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 189–198, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. B. H. Halliwell and J. M. C. Gutteridge, Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1989.
  15. K. B. Beckman and B. N. Ames, “The free radical theory of aging matures,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 547–581, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  16. P. Rossi, B. Marzani, S. Giardina, M. Negro, and F. Marzatico, “Human skeletal muscle aging and the oxidative system: cellular events,” Current Aging Science, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 182–191, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  17. L. Gil Del Valle, “Oxidative stress in aging: theoretical outcomes and clinical evidences in humans,” Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. R. S. Balaban, S. Nemoto, and T. Finkel, “Mitochondria, oxidants, and aging,” Cell, vol. 120, no. 4, pp. 483–495, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. K. B. Schwarz, “Oxidative stress during viral infection: a review,” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 641–649, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. P. A. Riley, “Free radicals in biology: oxidative stress and the effects of ionizing radiation,” International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 27–33, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. G. Pagano, “Redox-modulated xenobiotic action and ROS formation: a mirror or a window?” Human & Experimental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 77–81, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. H. Shi, X. Shi, and K. Liu, “Oxidative mechanism of arsenic toxicity and carcinogenesis,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 255, no. 1-2, pp. 67–78, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. K. Scharffetter-Kochanek, M. Wlaschek, P. Brenneisen, M. Schauen, R. Blaudschun, and J. Wenk, “UV-induced reactive oxygen species in photocarcinogenesis and photoaging,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 378, no. 11, pp. 1247–1257, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  24. C. Gemma, J. Vila, A. Bachstetter, and P. C. Bickford, “Oxidative stress and the aging brain: from theory to prevention,” in Brain Aging: Models, Methods, and Mechanisms, D. R. Riddle, Ed., chapter 15, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  25. L. T. Knapp and E. Klann, “Role of reactive oxygen species in hippocampal long-term potentiation: contributory or inhibitory?” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. T. Finkel, “Signal transduction by reactive oxygen species,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 194, no. 1, pp. 7–15, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. D. Fusco, G. Colloca, M. R. Lo Monaco, and M. Cesari, “Effects of antioxidant supplementation on the aging process,” Journal of Clinical Interventions in Aging, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 377–387, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  28. F. Q. Schafer and G. R. Buettner, “Acidic pH amplifies iron-mediated lipid peroxidation in cells,” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 1175–1181, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. E. R. Stadtman, “Role of oxidant species in aging,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1105–1112, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  30. I. S. Kil, T. L. Huh, Y. S. Lee, Y. M. Lee, and J. W. Park, “Regulation of replicative senescence by NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase,” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 110–119, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. A. Goswami, P. Dikshit, A. Mishra, S. Mulherkar, N. Nukina, and N. R. Jana, “Oxidative stress promotes mutant huntingtin aggregation and mutant huntingtin-dependent cell death by mimicking proteasomal malfunction,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 342, no. 1, pp. 184–190, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. K. C. Kregel and H. J. Zhang, “An integrated view of oxidative stress in aging: basic mechanisms, functional effects, and pathological considerations,” American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, vol. 292, no. 1, pp. R18–R36, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  33. D. Trachootham, W. Lu, MA. Ogasawara et al., “Redox regulation of cell survival,” Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1343–1374, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  34. P. M. Clarkson and S. Thompson, “Antioxidants: what role do they play in physical activity and health?” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 72, supplement 2, pp. 637S–646S, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  35. M. M. Berger, “Can oxidative damage be treated nutritionally?” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 172–183, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. G. Block, M. Dietrich, E. P. Norkus et al., “Factors associated with oxidative stress in human populations,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 156, no. 3, pp. 274–285, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. E. Niki, Y. Yamamoto, M. Takahashi et al., “Free radical-mediated damage of blood and its inhibition by antioxidants,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 507–512, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. B. Frei, L. England, and B. N. Ames, “Ascorbate is an outstanding antioxidant in human blood plasma,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 86, no. 16, pp. 6377–6381, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. V. A. Nunes, A. J. Gozzo, M. A. Juliano et al., “Antioxidant dietary deficiency induces caspase activation in chick skeletal muscle cells,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 1047–1053, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. R. Rafique, A. H. Schapira, and J. M. Coper, “Mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction in ageing; influence of vitamin E deficiency,” Free Radical Research, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 157–165, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. E. Niki, N. Noguchi, H. Tsuchihashi, and N. Gotoh, “Interaction among vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 1322S–1326S, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  42. T. Rinne, E. Mutschler, G. Wimmer-Greinecker, A. Moritz, and H. G. Olbrich, “Vitamins C and E protect isolated cardiomyocytes against oxidative damage,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 75, no. 2-3, pp. 275–281, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. D. Semba, F. Lauretani, and L. Ferrucci, “Carotenoids as protection against sarcopenia in older adults,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 458, no. 2, pp. 141–145, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. P. Hu, D. B. Reuben, E. M. Crimmins, T. B. Harris, M. H. Huang, and T. E. Seeman, “The effects of serum beta-carotene concentration and burden of inflammation on all-cause mortality risk in high-functioning older persons: MacArthur studies of successful aging,” The Journals of Gerontology Series A, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 849–854, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. J. Walston, Q. Xue, R. D. Semba et al., “Serum antioxidants, inflammation, and total mortality in older women,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 163, no. 1, pp. 18–26, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. J. E. Upritchard, C. R. Schuurman, A. Wiersma et al., “Spread supplemented with moderate doses of vitamin E and carotenoids reduces lipid peroxidation in healthy, nonsmoking adults,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 985–992, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  47. X. Wu, G. R. Beecher, J. M. Holden, D. B. Haytowitz, S. E. Gebhardt, and R. L. Prior, “Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of common foods in the United States,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 4026–4037, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. K. F. Petersen, D. Befroy, S. Dufour et al., “Mitochondrial dysfunction in the elderly: possible role in insulin resistance,” Science, vol. 300, no. 5622, pp. 1140–1142, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. S. R. J. Maxwell, “Prospects for the use of antioxidant therapies,” Drugs, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 345–361, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. I. H. Rosenberg, “Sarcopenia: origins and clinical relevance,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 127, no. 5, supplement, pp. S990–S991, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  51. D. L. Waters, R. N. Baumgartner, P. J. Garry, and B. Vellas, “Advantages of dietary, exercise-related, and therapeutic interventions to prevent and treat sarcopenia in adult patients: an update,” Journal of Clinical Interventions in Aging, vol. 5, pp. 259–270, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. I. Janssen, S. B. Heymsfield, and R. Ross, “Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairment and physical disability,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 889–896, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. R. N. Baumgartner, K. M. Koehler, D. Gallagher et al., “Epidemiology of sarcopenia among the elderly in New Mexico,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 147, no. 8, pp. 755–763, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  54. I. Janssen, D. S. Shepard, P. T. Katzmarzyk, and R. Roubenoff, “The healthcare costs of sarcopenia in the United States,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 80–85, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. L. Wolfson, J. Judge, R. Whipple, and M. King, “Strength is a major factor in balance, gait, and the occurrence of falls,” The Journals of Gerontology Series A, vol. 50, pp. 64–67, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. T. B. Vanitallie, “Frailty in the elderly: contributions of sarcopenia and visceral protein depletion,” Metabolism, vol. 52, no. 10, supplement 2, pp. 22–26, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. J. M. Bauer and C. C. Sieber, “Sarcopenia and frailty: a clinician's controversial point of view,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 674–678, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. H. Akima, Y. Kano, Y. Enomoto et al., “Muscle function in 164 men and women aged 20–84 yr,” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 220–226, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  59. L. A. Burton and D. Sumukadas, “Optimal management of sarcopenia,” Journal of Clinical Interventions in Aging, vol. 5, pp. 217–228, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. J. E. Morley, R. N. Baumgartner, R. Roubenoff, J. Mayer, and K. S. Nair, “Sarcopenia,” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 137, no. 4, pp. 231–243, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. O. Pansarasa, L. Bertorelli, J. Vecchiet, G. Felzani, and F. Marzatico, “Age-dependent changes of antioxidant activities and markers of free radical damage in human skeletal muscle,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 27, no. 5-6, pp. 617–622, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. P. Mecocci, G. Fanó, S. Fulle et al., “Age-dependent increases in oxidative damage to DNA, lipids, and proteins in human skeletal muscle,” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 26, no. 3-4, pp. 303–308, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. P. S. Lim, Y. M. Cheng, and Y. H. Wei, “Increase in oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in skeletal muscle of uremic patients,” Free Radical Research, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 295–301, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. P. Gianni, K. J. Jan, M. J. Douglas, P. M. Stuart, and M. A. Tarnopolsky, “Oxidative stress and the mitochondrial theory of aging in human skeletal muscle,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1391–1400, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. J. Palomero and M. J. Jackson, “Redox regulation in skeletal muscle during contractile activity and aging,” Journal of Animal Science, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 1307–1313, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  66. S. Fulle, F. Protasi, G. Di Tano et al., “The contribution of reactive oxygen species to sarcopenia and muscle ageing,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 17–24, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. M. B. Reid and Y. P. Li, “Cytokines and oxidative signalling in skeletal muscle,” Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol. 171, no. 3, pp. 225–232, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. A. Dirks and C. Leeuwenburgh, “Apoptosis in skeletal muscle with aging,” American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, vol. 282, no. 2, pp. R519–R527, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  69. J. S. Kim, J. M. Wilson, and S. R. Lee, “Dietary implications on mechanisms of sarcopenia: roles of protein, amino acids and antioxidants,” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. C. Selman, J. S. McLaren, C. Meyer et al., “Life-long vitamin C supplementation in combination with cold exposure does not affect oxidative damage or lifespan in mice, but decreases expression of antioxidant protection genes,” Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, vol. 127, no. 12, pp. 897–904, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. J. E. Morley, A. M. Abbatecola, J. M. Argiles et al., “Sarcopenia with limited mobility: an international consensus,” Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 403–409, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. A. D. Gupta, S. A. Dhundasi, J. G. Ambekar, and K. K. Das, “Effect of l-ascorbic acid on antioxidant defense system in testes of albino rats exposed to nickel sulfate,” Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 255–266, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. R. Rodrigo, H. Prat, W. Passalacqua, J. Araya, and J. P. Bächler, “Decrease in oxidative stress through supplementation of vitamins C and E is associated with a reduction in blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension,” Clinical Science, vol. 114, no. 10, pp. 625–634, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. P. Jakeman and S. Maxwell, “Effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on muscle function after eccentric exercise,” European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 426–430, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. A. Shafat, P. Butler, R. L. Jensen, and A. E. Donnelly, “Effects of dietary supplementation with vitamins C and E on muscle function during and after eccentric contractions in humans,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 93, no. 1-2, pp. 196–202, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. B. Marzani, M. Balage, A. Vénien et al., “Antioxidant supplementation restores defective leucine stimulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle from old rats,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 138, no. 11, pp. 2205–2211, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. J. A. Baur and D. A. Sinclair, “Therapeutic potential of resveratrol: the in vivo evidence,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 493–506, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. J. R. Jackson, M. J. Ryan, Y. Hao, and S. E. Alway, “Mediation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and apoptotic signaling by resveratrol following muscle disuse in the gastrocnemius muscles of young and old rats,” American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, vol. 299, no. 6, pp. R1572–R1581, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  79. R. J. Marshall, K. C. Scott, R. C. Hill et al., “Supplemental vitamin C appears to slow racing greyhounds,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 132, no. 6, pp. 1616S–1621S, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  80. M. C. Gomez-Cabrera, E. Domenech, M. Romagnoli et al., “Oral administration of vitamin C decreases muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and hampers training-induced adaptations in endurance performance,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 142–149, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  81. N. A. Strobel, J. M. Peake, A. Matsumoto, S. A. Marsh, J. S. Coombes, and G. D. Wadley, “Antioxidant supplementation reduces skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis,” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1017–1024, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. M. Ristow, K. Zarse, A. Oberbach et al., “Antioxidants prevent health-promoting effects of physical exercise in humans,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 21, pp. 8665–8670, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  83. K. Higashida, S. H. Kim, M. Higuchi, J. O. Holloszy, and D. H. Han, “Normal adaptations to exercise despite protection against oxidative stress,” American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 301, no. 5, pp. E779–E784, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. D. M. Bailey, C. Williams, J. A. Betts, D. Thompson, and T. L. Hurst, “Oxidative stress, inflammation and recovery of muscle function after damaging exercise: effect of 6-week mixed antioxidant supplementation,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 111, no. 6, pp. 925–936, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. G. L. Close, T. Ashton, T. Cable et al., “Ascorbic acid supplementation does not attenuate post-exercise muscle soreness following muscle-damaging exercise but may delay the recovery process,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 976–981, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  86. E. W. Petersen, K. Ostrowski, T. Ibfelt et al., “Effect of vitamin supplementation on cytokine response and on muscle damage after strenuous exercise,” American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology, vol. 280, no. 6, pp. C1570–C1575, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  87. A. A. Theodorou, M. G. Nikolaidis, V. Paschalis et al., “No effect of antioxidant supplementation on muscle performance and blood redox status adaptations to eccentric training,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 1373–1383, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  88. R. V. Kondratov, O. Vykhovanets, A. A. Kondratova, and M. P. Antoch, “Antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine ameliorates symptoms of premature aging associated with the deficiency of the circadian protein BMAL1,” Aging, vol. 1, no. 12, pp. 979–987, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  89. J. M. Sacheck, P. E. Milbury, J. G. Cannon, R. Roubenoff, and J. B. Blumberg, “Effect of vitamin E and eccentric exercise on selected biomarkers of oxidative stress in young and elderly men,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 1575–1588, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  90. M. J. Ryan, H. J. Dudash, M. Docherty et al., “Vitamin E and C supplementation reduces oxidative stress, improves antioxidant enzymes and positive muscle work in chronically loaded muscles of aged rats,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 882–895, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  91. T. Barker, S. W. Leonard, J. Hansen et al., “Vitamin E and C supplementation does not ameliorate muscle dysfunction after anterior cruciate ligament surgery,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 1611–1618, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  92. P. T. Gee, “Unleashing the untold and misunderstood observations on vitamin E,” Genes & Nutrition, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 5–16, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar