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Retracted

The article titled “Development of Ecofriendly Corrosion Inhibitors for Application in Acidization of Petroleum Oil Well” [1] has been retracted. The article was found to contain images reused in several other articles published by Mahendra Yadav and colleagues. The details of the reuse of images are as follows:Figure 9(a) is similar to Figure 11(a) in [2], Figure 14(a) in [3], Figure 5(a) in [4], and Figure 11(a) in [5].

We asked the authors to provide the underlying uncropped and unadjusted scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, the raw data, and details of how the experiments were conducted.

The corresponding author, Dr. Yadav, said the SEM work was outsourced but did not give details on where, when, or by whom this work was performed. The equipment is described as a “Scanning Electron Microscope model SEM Jeol JSM-5800” in this article. However, there is no description of the scanning electron microscope in [2] and in [6], and it is described as a “JEOL JSM-6380 LA analytical scanning electron microscope.” These are not the same model of the microscope, despite these articles sharing some of the same SEM images.

Dr. Yadav provided us with replacement figures. However, they were identical for two of the articles [1, 6], despite representing experiments with the inhibitors AMPT and ODAEODI, respectively. We were not told how these images were generated; the images were of low resolution and the text in the images was illegible.

The corresponding author agreed to retraction, and we have asked the institution to formally investigate.

View the full Retraction here.

References

  1. M. Yadav, S. Kumar, and P. N. Yadav, “Development of ecofriendly corrosion inhibitors for application in acidization of petroleum oil well,” Journal of Chemistry, vol. 2013, Article ID 618684, 9 pages, 2013.
  2. M. Yadav, S. Kumar, and P. N. Yadav, “Corrosion inhibition of tubing steel during acidization of oil and gas wells,” Journal of Petroleum Engineering, vol. 2013, Article ID 354630, 9 pages, 2013.
  3. M. Yadav, U. Sharma, and P. Yadav, “Corrosion inhibitive properties of some new isatin derivatives on corrosion of N80 steel in 15% HCl,” International Journal of Industrial Chemistry, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 6, 2013.
  4. M. Yadav, P. N. Yadav, and U. Sharma, “Substituted imidazoles as corrosion inhibitors for N80 steel in hydrochloric acid,” Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, vol. 20, pp. 363–370, 2013, http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/23662/1/IJCT%2020%286%29%20363-370.pdf.
  5. M. Yadav, S. Kumar, U. Sharma, and P. N. Yadav, “Substituted amines as corrosion inhibitors for N80 steel in 15% HCl,” Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 691–700, 2013, http://www.jmaterenvironsci.com/Document/vol4/vol4_N5/97-JMES-386-2013-Yadav.pdf.
  6. M. Yadav, S. Kumar, and D. Behera, “Inhibition effect of substituted thiadiazoles on corrosion activity of N80 steel in HCl solution,” Journal of Metallurgy, vol. 2013, Article ID 256403, 14 pages, 2013.
Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2013, Article ID 618684, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/618684
Research Article

Development of Ecofriendly Corrosion Inhibitors for Application in Acidization of Petroleum Oil Well

1Department of Applied Chemistry, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004, India
2Department of Physics Post Graduate College, Ghazipur 233001, India

Received 5 June 2012; Revised 25 July 2012; Accepted 30 July 2012

Academic Editor: Nick Kalogeropoulos

Copyright © 2013 M. Yadav et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In the present investigation the protective ability of 1-(2-aminoethyl)-2-octadecylimidazoline (AEODI) and 1-(2-octadecylamidoethyl)-2-octadecylimidazoline (ODAEODI) as corrosion inhibitors for N80 steel in 15% hydrochloric acid has been studied, which may find application as ecofriendly corrosion inhibitors in acidizing processes in petroleum industry. Different concentration of synthesized inhibitors AEODI and ODAEODI was added to test solution (15% HCl), and corrosion inhibition of N80 steel was tested by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, and AC impedance measurements. Influence of temperature (298 to 323 K) on the inhibition behaviour was studied. Surface studies were performed by using SEM. It was found that both the inhibitors were effective inhibitors, and their inhibition efficiency was significantly increased with increasing their concentration. Polarization curves revealed that the used inhibitors represent mixed-type inhibitors. The adsorption of used inhibitors led to a reduction in the double-layer capacitance and an increase in the charge transfer resistance. The adsorption of used compounds was found to obey Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption of the corrosion inhibitors at the surface of N80 steel is the root cause of corrosion inhibition.

1. Introduction

N80 steel is generally used as main construction material for down hole tubular, flow lines, and transmission pipelines in petroleum industry. The main problem of applying N80 steel is its dissolution in acidic solutions. The acidization of petroleum oil well is one of the important stimulation techniques for enhancing oil production. It is commonly brought about by forcing a solution of 15% to 28% hydrochloric acid into the well to remove plugging in the bore well and stimulate production in petroleum industry. To reduce the aggressive attack of the acid on tubing and casing materials (N80 steel), inhibitors are added to the acid solution during the acidifying process [1]. In the previous work some organic inhibitors have been tested for corrosion inhibition of N80 steel in hydrochloric medium [25]. The effective acidizing inhibitors that are usually found in commercial formulations suffer from drawbacks, they are effective only at high concentrations, and they are harmful to the environment due to their toxicity, so it is important to search for new nontoxic and effective organic corrosion inhibitors for N80 steel-15% hydrochloric acid system. Imidazoline derivatives, because of their good solubility, high stability, and lower toxicity, have been widely used [68]. The encouraging results obtained with imidazoline derivatives have incited us to synthesize some imidazoline derivatives and extend their use in the corrosion inhibiting action on N80 steel in HCl solution.

Thus, it was considered interesting to synthesize nontoxic imidazoline compounds like 1-(2-aminoethyl)-2-octadecylimidazoline (AEODI) and 1-(2-octadecylamidoethyl)-2-octadecylimidazoline (ODAEODI) and to assess their inhibitive properties for oil-well tubular steel (N80) in 15% hydrochloric acid.

2. Experimental

2.1. Materials

Rectangular steel coupons in size of 6.0 × 2.0 × 0.3 cm were cut from the N80 steel casing (supplied by ONGC) with a small hole 2 mm diameter at the upper edge of specimen for weight loss studies, and the size of electrode for electrochemical studies was taken as 1.0 × 1.0 × 0.3 cm. N80 steel sample used for the study was analyzed in MET-CHEM Laboratories, Baroda, India and found to have the composition, C (0.31%), S (0.008%), %), Si (0.19%), Mn (0.92%), Cr (0.20%), and Fe the rest. The corrosive solution was 15% HCl, obtained by the dilution of hydrochloric acid (Emerk, sp gravity 1.18) with double distilled water.

2.2. Weight Loss Measurements

The inhibitor concentration in weight loss study was in range of 20 to 200 ppm. Volume of test solution was 300 mL. The test coupons were mechanically polished with different grades of emery papers, cleaned with acetone, washed with distilled water, and finally dried in dry air before every experiment. After weighing accurately, the specimens were immersed in 500 mL of 15% HCl with and without the addition of different concentration of inhibitors. After 6 hours the coupons were taken out, washed, dried, and weighed accurately. High temperature (30–50°C) experiments were also carried out for a period of 6 h using water circulated Ultra thermostat (model NBE, Germany) with an accuracy of ±0.5°C. Duplicate experiments were performed in each, and mean value of weight loss was reported. The corrosion inhibition ability of an inhibitor is expressed by weight loss method in terms of inhibitor efficiency and is determined by the percentage decrease in corrosion rate after inhibition test. Consider where is corrosion rate in absence of inhibitor and CR: corrosion rate in presence of inhibitor. Corrosion rate (CR) for the specimen can be calculated in millimeter penetration per years (mmpy) with the help of the following equation: where is exposure time in hours, is weight loss of metal coupons in mg, is area of the test coupons in square inches, and is density of the steel.

2.3. Electrochemical Polarization Studies

The potentiodynamic polarization curves were recorded in absence and in presence of the inhibitors at different concentrations with the N80 steel (area 1 cm2) as working electrode using Potentiostat (VoltaLab 10) at 25°C. Experiments were performed with saturated calomel electrode as reference electrode and platinum as counter electrode. The potentiodynamic polarization study has been carried out at steady state and at a scan rate of 10 mV/sec and potential range from −1,000 mV to +1,000 mV. From the anodic and cathodic polarization curves, Tafel slopes (βa and βc) and corrosion current () were obtained. For calculating %IE by electrochemical polarization method we use the following formula: where is corrosion current in absence of inhibitor and is corrosion current in presence of inhibitor.

2.4. AC Impedance Studies

AC-impedance studies were carried out in a three-electrode cell assembly using computer controlled VoltaLab 10 electrochemical analyser, using N80 steel as the working electrode, platinum as counter electrode, and saturated calomel as reference electrode. The data were analysed using Voltamaster 4.0 software. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) were acquired in the frequency range from 10 kHz to 1 mHz at the rest potential by applying 10 mV sine wave AC voltage. The charge transfer resistance () and double-layer capacitance () were determined from Nyquist plots. The inhibition efficiencies were calculated from charge transfer resistance values by using the following formula: where is charge transfer resistance in absence of inhibitor and is charge transfer resistance in presence of inhibitor.

2.5. SEM Analysis

Morphology of the metal surface was studied with the help of Scanning Electron Microscope model SEM Jeol JSM-5800. SEM micrographs were obtained for polished metal surface, metal surface exposed to 15% HCl solution for 6 hours with and without inhibitor/inhibitor mixtures.

2.6. Synthesis of Inhibitors

The imidazoline derivatives AEODI and ODAEODI were synthesized by the reaction of octadecanoic acid with diethylenetriamine in xylene as the solvent in 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 molar ratio, respectively [9]. The synthesis process was carried out in a three-necked flask with thermometer, stirrer, and water splitter. The reactant was refluxed at 140°–150°C until no more water came over from the water splitter. The water splitter was removed, the pressure of the reaction system was adjusted to 14.12 kPa, and the reaction temperature was raised to 250°C for another 30 min. The desired product was obtained. The purity of the product was checked by TLC. The yield was found to be 80% and 88%, respectively. Consider

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The pure products were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy. Physical and spectral data of synthesized imidazoline derivatives are summarized below.

AEODI. Yield 80%, m.p. 94°C; 1HNMR (CDCl3): δ 3.33 (m, 2H), 2.81–2.71 (m, 4H), 2.16 (t, 2H), 1.59 (q, 4H), 1.26–1.23 (m, 32H), 0.86 (t, 3H). IR (KBr, cm−1): 1650 (C=N), 1610 (N=C–C), 1550, 1450, 1360 (C–N–C), 2700–2900 (–C–H), 3430 (N–H str).

ODAEODI. Yield 88%, m.p. 98°C; 1HNMR (CDCl3): δ 3.24 (m, 2H), 2.88–2.76 (m, 4H), 2.22 (t, 2H), 1.62 (q, 4H), 1.22–1.28 (m, 32H), 0.92 (t, 3H), 1.18–1.24 (m, 32H), 0.86(t, 3H). IR (KBr, cm−1): 1660 (C=N), 1620 (N=C–C), 1560, 1430, 1340 (C–N–C), 2700–2900 (–C–H), 3450 (N–H str), 1720 (C=O str).

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Weight Loss Tests

The percentage inhibition efficiencies (%IEs) in presence of 20, 50, 100, 150, and 200 ppm of AEODI and ODAEODI have been evaluated by weight loss technique after 6 h of immersion and at 25°C. The corrosion rate (CR) and inhibition efficiency obtained by weight loss data are shown in Table 1. It is evident from these values that both the inhibitors are significantly effective even at low concentrations, like 20 ppm, and there is a linear increase in %IE in the whole range of concentrations studied.

tab1
Table 1: Effect of inhibitors concentration on corrosion of N80 steel.
3.2. Electrochemical Polarization Studies

Electrochemical polarization behaviour in presence of 20, 100, and 150 ppm of AEODI and ODAEODI for N80 steel in 15% HCl at 25°C is shown in Figures 1 to 2, and various parameters obtained are given in Table 2. The curves in Figures 1 and 2 illustrate that the nature of the curve remains almost same even after the addition of the inhibitors and also on increasing the concentration of the inhibitor indicating that the inhibitors molecules retard the corrosion process without changing the mechanism of corrosion process in the medium of investigation [10]. The anodic and cathodic polarization curves shifted towards lower current density in presence of both the inhibitors indicating the mixed nature of the inhibitors. The increase in the cathodic and anodic Tafel slopes ( and ) is related to the decrease in both the cathodic and anodic currents. The minor shift in the value of corrosion potential in presence of both the inhibitors also supports the mixed nature of the inhibitors [11].

tab2
Table 2: Potentiodynamic polarization parameters of the corrosion of N80 steel in 15% HCl in absence and presence of different concentrations of ODAEODI and AEODI at 25°C.
618684.fig.001
Figure 1: Polarization curves for N80 steel in 15% HCl containing various concentrations of AEODI at 25°C.
618684.fig.002
Figure 2: Polarization curves for N80 steel in 15% HCl containing various concentrations of OAEOI at 25°C.
3.3. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS)

The impedance data of N80 steel, recorded in presence of 20, 100, and 150 ppm of the inhibitor ODAEODI in 15% HCl solution at 25°C as Nyquist plots, are shown in Figure 3. The equivalent circuit parameters for N80 steel in 15% HCl solution at 25°C in presence of 20, 50, and 150 ppm of the inhibitor were calculated by using equivalent circuit diagram (Figure 4) and this is presented in Table 3. From the data in Table 3, it is clear that the value of increases on increasing the concentration of the inhibitor, indicating that the corrosion rate decreases in presence of the inhibitor. It is also clear that the value of decreases on the addition of inhibitor, indicating a decrease in the local dielectric constant and/or an increase in the thickness of the electrical double layer, suggesting that the inhibitor molecules function by the formation of a protective layer at the metal surface [12].

tab3
Table 3: Equivalent circuit parameters and inhibition efficiency for N80 steel in 15% HCl acid in presence of ODAEODI at 25°C.
618684.fig.003
Figure 3: Nyquist plot for N80 steel in 15% HCl acid containing various concentrations of ODAEODI 0.0 ppm, 20 ppm, 100 ppm and 150 ppm at 25°C.
618684.fig.004
Figure 4: Electrochemical equivalent circuit used to fit the impedance measurements that include a solution resistance (), a constant phase element (), and a charge transfer resistance ().

In order to confirm the potentiodynamic results, the corrosion inhibition efficiency (IEs) in presence of 20, 100, and 150 ppm concentration of the inhibitor ODAEODI in 15% HCl acid at 25°C was also calculated from the corresponding electrochemical impedance data and is given in Table 3. The corrosion inhibition efficiencies calculated from impedance data are in good agreement with those obtained from electrochemical polarization data and weight loss measurement.

3.4. Effect of Temperature and Thermodynamic Parameters

Experiments were carried out at different temperature (298 to 323 K) in presence of 150 ppm of inhibitors. It has been found that the corrosion rate increases with the increase in temperature for both the inhibitors (Table 4). The corrosion rate of N80 steel in absence of inhibitors increased steeply from 303 K to 323 K whereas in presence of inhibitors the corrosion rate increased slowly. The inhibition efficiency was found to decrease with temperature. The results show that the inhibition efficiency offered by AEODI and ODAEODI was 68.24% and 74.75%, respectively, at 323 K. The corrosion parameters in absence and in presence of inhibitors in the temperature range from 298 to 323 K have been summarized in Table 4.

tab4
Table 4: Immersion test results of N80 steel in 15% HCL in presence of 150 ppm concentration of inhibitors at different temperature (303 K–323 K).

The apparent activation energy () for dissolution of N80 steel in 15% HCl was calculated from the slope of plots by using Arrhenius equation: where is rate of corrosion, is the apparent activation energy, is the universal gas constant, is absolute temperature, and is the Arrhenius preexponential factor. By plotting log k against 1/T the values of activation energy () have been calculated () (Figure 5). Activation energy for the reaction of N80 steel in 15% HCl increases in presence of inhibitors (Table 4). The increase in activation energy may be due to the adsorption of the inhibitors at the surface of the metal [13].

618684.fig.005
Figure 5: Arrhenius plot for AEODI and ODAEODI.

The values of change of entropy () and change of enthalpy () can be calculated by using the following formula: where is rate of corrosion, is Plank’s constant, is Avogadro,s number, is the entropy of activation, and is the enthalpy of activation. A plot of log versus (Figure 6) should give a straight line, with a slope of () and an intercept of , from which the values of and can be calculated (Table 4).

618684.fig.006
Figure 6: Transition state plot for AEOI and ODAEODI.

The negative value of (Table 4) for both the inhibitors indicates that activated complex in rate-determining step represents an association rather than dissociation step, meaning that a decrease in disorder takes place during the course of transition from reactant to the activated complex [14]. The negative sign of indicates that the adsorption of inhibitors molecule is an exothermic process. Generally, an exothermic process signifies either physisorption or chemisorption or a combination of both. Typically, the enthalpy of physisorption process is lower than that of 40.00 kJ/mole while the enthalpy of chemisorptions process approaches 100 kJ/mole [15]. In the present study the absolute value of the heat of adsorption for AEODI and ODAEODI was found −82.25 kJ/mole and −92.15 kJ/mole (Table 4), indicating the chemisorption of the inhibitors at the surface of N80 steel. The average value of free energy of adsorption, (), was calculated using the following equation: where is degree of coverage on metal surface, is concentration of inhibitors in mol L−1, is molar gas constant, and is temperature. The value of 55.5 in the above equation is the concentration of water in the solution in mole/litre. The equilibrium constant () has been replaced by the following equation:

By plotting log against the value of can be calculated from the slope of the straight line obtained (Figure 7). The standard free energy of adsorption () for AEODI and ODAEODI was found −62.15 kJ/mol and −58.24 kJ/mol (Table 4), respectively, indicating that the inhibitors were adsorbed on the metal surface by chemisorption [16]. The negative values indicate the spontaneity of the adsorption process and stability of the adsorbed layer on N80 steel surface.

618684.fig.007
Figure 7: Variation of log with for N80 steel in 15% HCl in presence of ODAEODI and AEODI.
3.5. Adsorption Isotherms

The mechanism of corrosion inhibition may be explained on the basis of adsorption behavior. The most frequently used adsorption isotherms are Langmuir, Temkin, and Frumkin. The degree of surface coverage (Θ) for different concentration of inhibitor in 15% hydrochloric acid has been evaluated by weight loss values. The data were tested graphically by fitting to various isotherms. A straight line is obtained on plotting against log (Figure 8) suggesting that the adsorption of the compound on the surface of N80 steel follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm [17].

618684.fig.008
Figure 8: Langmuir plots for AEODI and ODAEODI.
3.6. SEM Study

Figures 9(a), 9(b), and 9(c) show the microphotographs for N80 steel in 15% hydrochloric acid in the absence and presence of 150 ppm of ODAEODI at 200x magnification. On comparing these micrographs, it appears that, in the presence of inhibitor, the surface of the test material has improved remarkably with respect to its smoothness. The smoothening of the surface would have been caused by the adsorption of inhibitor molecules on it, and, thus, the surface is fully covered.

618684.fig.009
Figure 9: SEM of (a) Polished sample, (b) Sample in presence of 15% hydrochloric acid and (c) Sample in presence of 150 ppm of ODAEODI.

4. Discussion

The protective action of the inhibitors AEODI and ODAEODI was considered in the context of their adsorption on the metal surface. In acid solution, the inhibitors can exist as protonated species which may be adsorbed through electrostatic interaction between the positively charged inhibitors molecules and the negatively charged metal surface. The adsorption of the unprotonated inhibitors AEODI and ODAEODI on the metal may occur by the interaction between the vacant d-orbital of iron atom at the surface and the lone pair electron of nitrogen atom present in the inhibitors. The mechanism of inhibition of corrosion is believed to be through the formation of a protective film on the metal surface. Further, when is plotted against log , straight line is obtained for both the inhibitors (Figure 8) suggesting that inhibitors adsorption follows Langmuir isotherm. The inhibition efficiency of ODAEODI is higher than the AEODI due to its larger size and presence of more number of active atoms. The adsorption is occurring through nitrogen of amino group and nitrogen and delocalized -electrons of the imidazoline ring. The presence of -electrons of the imidazoline ring and large hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain facilitate the adsorption process at the surface of the metal. The lowering of inhibition efficiency with temperature may be due to higher desorption rate at higher temperature. The increase in activation energy in presence of inhibitors is due to the formation of a barrier at the surface of the steel which prevents the dissolution of the metal. The negative values of and indicate that the adsorption is spontaneous and exothermic process, respectively.

5. Conclusions

Both the inhibitors AEODI and ODAEODI act as efficient corrosion inhibitors for N80 steel in 15% HCl solution. ODAEODI shows appreciably higher efficiency than AEODI due to the presence of more active centres and its larger size as compared to the inhibitor AEODI. Both the inhibitors act as mixed inhibitors. It is suggested from the results obtained from SEM and Langmuir adsorption isotherm that the mechanism of corrosion inhibition is occurring through adsorption process. EIS measurements show that charge transfer resistance () increases, and double layer capacitance () decreases in presence of inhibitors indicating the adsorption of the inhibitors at the surface of N80 steel.

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