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Experimental Diabetes Research
Volume 2012, Article ID 238980, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/238980
Review Article

The Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Autoimmune-Mediated Beta-Cell Destruction in Type 1 Diabetes

1The Center for Biomedical Research, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430030, China
2The Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, 1120 15th Street, CA4098, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
3Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical College, 57 Ren-Ming Road, Zhanjiang 524001, China
4The Department of Clinical Immunology, Guangdong Medical College, 1 Xincheng Avenue, Dongguan 523808, China

Received 11 July 2011; Accepted 27 November 2011

Academic Editor: Muthuswamy Balasubramanyam

Copyright © 2012 Jixin Zhong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Unlike type 2 diabetes which is caused by the loss of insulin sensitivity, type 1 diabetes (T1D) is manifested by the absolute deficiency of insulin secretion due to the loss of β mass by autoimmune response against β-cell self-antigens. Although significant advancement has been made in understanding the pathoetiology for type 1 diabetes, the exact mechanisms underlying autoimmune-mediated β-cell destruction, however, are yet to be fully addressed. Accumulated evidence demonstrates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an essential role in autoimmune-mediated β-cell destruction. There is also evidence supporting that ER stress regulates the functionality of immune cells relevant to autoimmune progression during T1D development. In this paper, we intend to address the role of ER stress in autoimmune-mediated β-cell destruction during the course of type 1 diabetes. The potential implication of ER stress in modulating autoimmune response will be also discussed. We will further dissect the possible pathways implicated in the induction of ER stress and summarize the potential mechanisms underlying ER stress for mediation of β-cell destruction. A better understanding of the role for ER stress in T1D pathoetiology would have great potential aimed at developing effective therapeutic approaches for the prevention/intervention of this devastating disorder.