Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 797548, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/797548
Review Article

Advances in Murine Models of Diabetic Nephropathy

Department of Nephrology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130041, China

Received 2 February 2013; Accepted 21 May 2013

Academic Editor: Shahidul Islam

Copyright © 2013 Li-li Kong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Szkudelski, “The mechanism of alloxan and streptozotocin action in B cells of the rat pancreas,” Physiological Research, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 537–546, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Lenzen, “The mechanisms of alloxan- and streptozotocin-induced diabetes,” Diabetologia, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 216–226, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. Susztak, K. Sharma, M. Schiffer, P. McCue, E. Ciccone, and E. P. Böttinger, “Genomic strategies for diabetic nephropathy,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. S271–S278, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. G. H. Tesch and T. J. Allen, “Rodent models of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy (methods in renal research),” Nephrology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 261–266, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Itagaki, E. Nishida, M.-J. Lee, and K. Doi, “Histopathology of subacute renal lesions in mice induced by streptozotocin,” Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 485–491, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. G. Farr, J. W. Mannschreck, and S. K. Anderson, “Expression of Ia antigens by murine kidney epithelium after exposure to streptozotocin,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 126, no. 3, pp. 561–568, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Schmezer, C. Eckert, and U. M. Liegibel, “Tissue-specific induction of mutations by streptozotocin in vivo,” Mutation Research, vol. 307, no. 2, pp. 495–499, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Hall-Craggs, D. E. Brenner, R. D. Vigorito, and J. C. Sutherland, “Acute renal failure and renal tubular squamous metaplasia following treatment with streptozotocin,” Human Pathology, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 597–601, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. Tay, Y. Wang, L. Kairaitis, G. K. Rangan, C. Zhang, and D. C. H. Harris, “Can murine diabetic nephropathy be separated from superimposed acute renal failure?” Kidney International, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 391–398, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. D. Breyer, E. Bottinger, F. C. Brosius III et al., “Mouse models of diabetic nephropathy,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 27–45, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  11. A. R. Kraynak, R. D. Storer, R. D. Jensen et al., “Extent and persistence of streptozotocin-induced DNA damage and cell proliferation in rat kidney as determined by in vivo alkaline elution and BrdUrd labeling assays,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 135, no. 2, pp. 279–286, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. H. Leiter, “Multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia and insulitis in C57BL mice: influence of inbred background, sex, and thymus,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 630–634, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. H. Leiter, “Differential susceptibility of BALB/c sublines to diabetes induction by multi-dose streptozotocin treatment,” Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 122, pp. 78–85, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Sun, Y. Wang, Q. Li, Y. Tian, M. Liu, and Y. Yu, “Effects of benazepril on renal function and kidney expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 in diabetic rats,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 119, no. 10, pp. 814–821, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. A. Like, M. C. Appel, R. M. Williams, and A. A. Rossini, “Streptozotocin-induced pancreatic insulitis in mice morphologic and physiologic studies,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 470–486, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. A. Like and A. A. Rossini, “Streptozotocin induced pancreatic insulitis: new model of diabetes mellitus,” Science, vol. 193, no. 4251, pp. 415–417, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. A. Rossini, M. C. Appel, R. M. Williams, and A. A. Like, “Genetic influence of the streptozotocin-induced insulitis and hyperglycemia,” Diabetes, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 916–920, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. B. Gurley, S. E. Clare, K. P. Snow, A. Hu, T. W. Meyer, and T. M. Coffman, “Impact of genetic background on nephropathy in diabetic mice,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 290, no. 1, pp. F214–F222, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. W. Huang, Y. Gallois, N. Bouby et al., “Genetically increased angiotensin I-converting enzyme level and renal complications in the diabetic mouse,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 98, no. 23, pp. 13330–13334, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. Susztak, E. Böttinger, A. Novetsky et al., “Molecular profiling of diabetic mouse kidney reveals novel genes linked to glomerular disease,” Diabetes, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 784–794, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. S. Surwit, M. N. Feinglos, J. Rodin et al., “Differential effects of fat and sucrose on the development of obesity and diabetes in C57BL/6J and A/J mice,” Metabolism, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 645–651, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. S. Surwit, C. M. Kuhn, C. Cochrane, J. A. McCubbin, and M. N. Feinglos, “Diet-induced type II diabetes in C57BL/6J mice,” Diabetes, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 1163–1167, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. E. Petro, J. Cotter, D. A. Cooper, J. C. Peters, S. J. Surwit, and R. S. Surwit, “Fat, carbohydrate, and calories in the development of diabetes and obesity in the C57BL/6J mouse,” Metabolism, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 454–457, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. A. Schreyer, D. L. Wilson, and R. C. Leboeuf, “C57BL/6 mice fed high fat diets as models for diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 17–24, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. A. Towler, M. Bidder, T. Latifi, T. Coleman, and C. F. Semenkovich, “Diet-induced diabetes activates an osteogenic gene regulatory program in the aortas of low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 273, no. 46, pp. 30427–30434, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Mu, J. K. Naggert, K. L. Svenson et al., “Quantitative trait loci analysis for the differences in susceptibility to atherosclerosis and diabetes between inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J and C57BLKS/J,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1328–1335, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Sugano, H. Yamato, T. Hayashi et al., “High-fat diet in low-dose-streptozotocin-treated heminephrectomized rats induces all features of human type 2 diabetic nephropathy: a new rat model of diabetic nephropathy,” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 477–484, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Makino, K. Kunimoto, Y. Muraoka, Y. Mizushima, K. Katagiri, and Y. Tochino, “Breeding of a non-obese, diabetic strain of mice,” Jikken Dobutsu, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. E. Mathews, “Utility of murine models for the study of spontaneous autoimmune type 1 diabetes,” Pediatric Diabetes, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 165–177, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. S. Wicker, G. Chamberlain, K. Hunter et al., “Fine mapping, gene content, comparative sequencing, and expression analyses support Ctla4 and Nramp1 as candidates for Idd5.1 and Idd5.2 in the nonobese diabetic mouse,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 173, no. 1, pp. 164–173, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. P. Driver, D. V. Serreze, and Y. Chen, “Mouse models for the study of autoimmune type 1 diabetes: a NOD to similarities and differences to human disease,” Seminars in Immunopathology, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 67–87, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. T. Doi, L. Y. C. Agodoa, T. Sato et al., “Glomerular lesions in nonobese diabetic mouse: before and after the onset of hyperglycemia,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 204–212, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. E. Alpers and K. L. Hudkins, “Mouse models of diabetic nephropathy,” Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 278–284, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. P. Cohen, G. T. Lautenslager, and C. W. Shearman, “Increased urinary type IV collagen marks the development of glomerular pathology in diabetic d/db mice,” Metabolism, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 1435–1440, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. Arakawa, T. Ishihara, A. Oku et al., “Improved diabetic syndrome in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice by oral administration of the Na+-glucose cotransporter inhibitor T-1095,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 132, no. 2, pp. 578–586, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. Mishra, S. N. Emancipator, C. Miller, T. Kern, and M. S. Simonson, “Adipose differentiation-related protein and regulators of lipid homeostasis identified by gene expression profiling in the murine db/db diabetic kidney,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 286, no. 5, pp. F913–F921, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. Koya, M. Haneda, H. Nakagawa et al., “Amelioration of accelerated diabetic mesangial expansion by treatment with a PKC β inhibitor in diabetic db/db mice, a rodent model for type 2 diabetes,” FASEB Journal, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 439–447, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. D. H. Moralejo, T. Ogino, M. Zhu et al., “A major quantitative trait locus co-localizing with cholecystokinin type A receptor gene influences poor pancreatic proliferation in a spontaneously diabetogenic rat,” Mammalian Genome, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 794–798, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. Choi, B. H. Kim, J. Naowaboot et al., “Effects of ferulic acid on diabetic nephropathy in a rat model of type 2 diabetes,” Experimental and Molecular Medicine, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 676–683, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. Li, H. Zhang, F. J. Burczynski et al., “Attenuation of diabetic nephropathy in Otsuka long-evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats with a combination of Chinese herbs (tangshen formula),” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 613737, 8 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. O. Phillips, K. Baboolal, S. Riley et al., “Association of prolonged hyperglycemia with glomerular hypertrophy and renal basement membrane thickening in the Goto Kakizaki model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 400–410, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. G. Riley, R. A. Evans, M. Davies, J. Floege, and A. O. Phillips, “Goto-Kakizaki rat is protected from proteinuria after induction of anti-Thy1 nephritis,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 985–1000, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. G. Riley, R. Steadman, J. D. Williams, J. Floege, and A. O. Phillips, “Augmentation of kidney injury by basic fibroblast growth factor or platelet-derived growth factor does not induce progressive diabetic nephropathy in the Goto Kakizaki model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes,” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 134, no. 3, pp. 304–312, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. N. Sato, K. Komatsu, and H. Kurumatani, “Late onset of diabetic nephropathy in spontaneously diabetic GK rats,” American Journal of Nephrology, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 334–342, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Y. Yamamoto, I. Kato, T. Doi et al., “Development and prevention of advanced diabetic nephropathy in RAGE-overexpressing mice,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 261–268, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. C. Chua Jr., W. K. Chung, X. S. Wu-Peng et al., “Phenotypes of mouse diabetes and rat fatty due to mutations in the OB (leptin) receptor,” Science, vol. 271, no. 5251, pp. 994–996, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. M. Clee, S. T. Nadler, and A. D. Attie, “Genetic and genomic studies of the BTBR ob/ob mouse model of type 2 diabetes,” American Journal of Therapeutics, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 491–498, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. K. L. Hudkins, W. Pichaiwong, T. Wietecha et al., “BTBR Ob/Ob mutant mice model progressive diabetic nephropathy,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1533–1542, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. A. Melez, L. C. Harrison, J. N. Gilliam, and A. D. Steinberg, “Diabetes is associated with autoimmunity in the New Zealand Obese (NZO) mouse,” Diabetes, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 835–840, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. D. Lu, D. Willard, I. R. Patel et al., “Agouti protein is an antagonist of the melanocyte-stimulating-hormone receptor,” Nature, vol. 371, no. 6500, pp. 799–802, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. M. Ollmann, B. D. Wilson, Y. Yang et al., “Antagonism of Central Melanocortin receptors in vitro and in vivo by agouti-related protein,” Science, vol. 278, no. 5335, pp. 135–138, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. Okazaki, Y. Saito, Y. Udaka et al., “Diabetic nephropathy in KK and KK-Ay mice,” Experimental Animals, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 191–196, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. H. Ninomiya, T. Inomata, and K. Ogihara, “Obstructive uropathy and hydronephrosis in male KK-Ay mice: a report of cases,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 53–57, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. S. Phillips, Q. Liu, H. A. Hammond et al., “Leptin receptor missense mutation in the fatty Zucker rat,” Nature Genetics, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 18–19, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Y. Li, Y. Qi, M. S. Kim et al., “Increased renal collagen cross-linking and lipid accumulation in nephropathy of Zucker diabetic fatty rats,” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 498–506, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. Hoshi, Y. Shu, F. Yoshida et al., “Podocyte injury promotes progressive nephropathy in zucker diabetic fatty rats,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 25–35, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. T. M. Coimbra, U. Janssen, H. J. Gröne et al., “Early events leading to renal injury in obese Zucker (fatty) rats with type II diabetes,” Kidney International, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 167–182, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. Y. Izuhara, T. Sada, H. Yanagisawa et al., “A novel sartan derivative with very low angiotensin II type 1 receptor affinity protects the kidney in type 2 diabetic rats,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1767–1773, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. A. B. Magil and J. J. Frohlich, “Monocytes and macrophages in focal glomerulosclerosis in Zucker rats,” Nephron, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 131–138, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. B. Magil, “Tubulointerstitial lesions in young zucker rats,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 478–485, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. D. Chen and M. Wang, “Development and application of rodent models for type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 307–317, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. J. L. Figarola, S. Loera, Y. Weng, N. Shanmugam, R. Natarajan, and S. Rahbar, “LR-90 prevents dyslipidaemia and diabetic nephropathy in the Zucker diabetic fatty rat,” Diabetologia, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 882–891, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. W. P. Cui, B. Li, Y. Bai et al., “Potential role for Nrf2 activation in the therapeutic effect of MG132 on diabetic nephropathy in OVE26 diabetic mice,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 304, no. 1, pp. E87–E99, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. S. Zheng, W. T. Noonan, N. S. Metreveli et al., “Development of late-stage diabetic nephropathy in OVE26 diabetic mice,” Diabetes, vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 3248–3257, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. Xu, Y. Huang, F. Li, S. Zheng, and P. N. Epstein, “FVB mouse genotype confers susceptibility to OVE26 diabetic albuminuria,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 299, no. 3, pp. 487–494, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  66. H. J. Zhao, S. Wang, H. Cheng et al., “Endothelial nitric oxide synthase deficiency produces accelerated nephropathy in diabetic mice,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 2664–2669, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. S. Mohan, R. L. Reddick, N. Musi et al., “Diabetic eNOS knockout mice develop distinct macro- and microvascular complications,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 515–528, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. F. C. Brosius III, C. E. Alpers, E. P. Bottinger et al., “Mouse models of diabetic nephropathy,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2503–2512, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. R. Inagi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Nangaku et al., “A severe diabetic nephropathy model with early development of nodule-like lesions induced by megsin overexpression in RAGE/iNOS transgenic mice,” Diabetes, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 356–366, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. Maeda, A. Yabuki, S. Suzuki, M. Matsumoto, K. Taniguchi, and H. Nishinakagawa, “Renal lesions in spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the nonobese diabetic mouse: acute phase of diabetes,” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 187–195, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. C.-J. He, F. Zheng, A. Stitt, L. Striker, M. Hattori, and H. Vlassara, “Differential expression of renal AGE-receptor genes in NOD mice: possible role in nonobese diabetic renal disease,” Kidney International, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 1931–1940, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. O. G. Pankewycz, J. Guan, W. K. Bolton, A. Gomez, and J. F. Benedict, “Renal TGF-β regulation in spontaneously diabetic NOD mice with correlations in mesangial cells,” Kidney International, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 748–758, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. K. Sharma and F. N. Ziyadeh, “Renal hypertrophy is associated with upregulation of TGF-β1 gene expression in diabetic BB rat and NOD mouse,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 267, no. 6, part 2, pp. F1094–F1101, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. F. Y. Chow, D. J. Nikolic-Paterson, E. Ozols, R. C. Atkins, and G. H. Tesch, “Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 deficiency is protective against nephropathy in type 2 diabetic db/db mice,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1711–1722, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. F. R. DeRubertis, P. A. Craven, M. F. Melhem, and E. M. Salah, “Attenuation of renal injury in db/db mice overexpressing superoxide dismutase: evidence for reduced superoxide-nitric oxide interaction,” Diabetes, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 762–768, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. K. Shima, K. Shi, T. Sano, T. Iwami, A. Mizuno, and Y. Noma, “Is exercise training effective in preventing diabetes mellitus in the Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rat, a model of spontaneous non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus?” Metabolism, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 971–977, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. N. Okauchi, A. Mizuno, S. Yoshimoto, M. Zhu, T. Sano, and K. Shima, “Is caloric restriction effective in preventing diabetes mellitus in the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty Rat, a model of spontaneous non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus?” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 97–106, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. U. Janssen, A. Vassiliadou, S. G. Riley, A. O. Phillips, and J. Floege, “The quest for a model of type II diabetes with nephropathy: the Goto Kakizaki rat,” Journal of Nephrology, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 769–773, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. F. Miralles and B. Portha, “Early development of beta-cells is impaired in the GK rat model of type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes, vol. 50, pp. S84–88, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. M. T. Velasquez, P. L. Kimmel, and O. E. Michaelis IV, “Animal models of spontaneous diabetic kidney disease,” FASEB Journal, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 2850–2859, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. F. Bielschowsky and M. Bielschowsky, “The New Zealand strain of obese mice; their response to stilboestrol and to insulin,” Australian Journal of Experimental Biology & Medical Science, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 181–198, 1956. View at Google Scholar
  82. E. H. Leiter and P. C. Reifsnyder, “Differential levels of diabetogenic stress in two new mouse models of obesity and type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. S4–S11, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. P. C. Reifsnyder and E. H. Leiter, “Deconstructing and reconstructing obesity-induced diabetes (diabesity) in mice,” Diabetes, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 825–832, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. J. P. Corsetti, J. D. Sparks, R. G. Peterson, R. L. Smith, and C. E. Sparks, “Effect of dietary fat on the development of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in obese Zucker diabetic fatty male and female rats,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 148, no. 2, pp. 231–241, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus