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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 3789217, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3789217
Review Article

Diabetic Retinopathy: Animal Models, Therapies, and Perspectives

1Department of Ophthalmology, Dean McGee Eye Institute, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
2Department of Cell Biology, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
3Oklahoma Center for Neuroscience, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA

Received 14 August 2015; Accepted 6 December 2015

Academic Editor: Shuang-Xi Wang

Copyright © 2016 Xue Cai and James F. McGinnis. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major complications of diabetes. Although great efforts have been made to uncover the mechanisms underlying the pathology of DR, the exact causes of DR remain largely unknown. Because of multifactor involvement in DR etiology, currently no effective therapeutic treatments for DR are available. In this paper, we review the pathology of DR, commonly used animal models, and novel therapeutic approaches. Perspectives and future directions for DR treatment are discussed.