Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 1039161, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1039161
Research Article

Irisin: A Potential Link between Physical Exercise and Metabolism—An Observational Study in Differently Trained Subjects, from Elite Athletes to Sedentary People

1Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via L. Mangiagalli 31, 20133 Milan, Italy
2Endocrinology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Via R. Morandi 30, San Donato Milanese, 20097 Milan, Italy
3Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, Italy
4Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
5Diabetes Research Institute, Metabolism, Nutrigenomics and Cellular Differentiation Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
6Metabolism Research Center, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Via R. Morandi 30, San Donato Milanese, 20097 Milan, Italy
7SMEL-1 Laboratory Medicine Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Via R. Morandi 30, San Donato Milanese, 20097 Milan, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Stefano Benedini; ti.iminu@inideneb.onafets

Received 16 November 2016; Revised 10 January 2017; Accepted 1 March 2017; Published 13 March 2017

Academic Editor: Joseph F. Ndisang

Copyright © 2017 Stefano Benedini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. J. Mayer-Davis, R. D'Agostino Jr., A. J. Karter et al., “Intensity and amount of physical activity in relation to insulin sensitivity the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 279, no. 9, pp. 669–674, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. E. Manson, P. Greenland, A. Z. LaCroix et al., “Walking compared with vigorous exercise for the prevention of cardiovascular events in women,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 347, no. 10, pp. 716–725, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. T. Christiansen, J. M. Bruun, E. L. Madsen, and B. Richelsen, “Weight loss maintenance in severely obese adults after an intensive lifestyle intervention: 2- to 4-year follow-up,” Obesity, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 413–420, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. M. Choi, “The impact of organokines on insulin resistance, inflammation, and atherosclerosis,” Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. A. Polyzos, J. Kountouras, K. Shields, and C. S. Mantzoros, “Irisin: a renaissance in metabolism?” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 62, no. 8, pp. 1037–1044, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. Boström, J. Wu, M. P. Jedrychowski et al., “A PGC1-α-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis,” Nature, vol. 481, no. 7382, pp. 463–468, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. Lombardi, F. Sanchis-Gomar, S. Perego, V. Sansoni, and G. Banfi, “Implications of exercise-induced adipo-myokines in bone metabolism,” Endocrine, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 284–305, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. S. Daskalopoulou, A. B. Cooke, Y.-H. Gomez et al., “Plasma irisin levels progressively increase in response to increasing exercise workloads in young, healthy, active subjects,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 171, no. 3, pp. 343–352, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. Y. Huh, A. Siopi, V. Mougios, K. H. Park, and C. S. Mantzoros, “Irisin in response to exercise in humans with and without metabolic syndrome,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. E453–E457, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Y. Tsuchiya, T. Ijichi, and K. Goto, “Effect of sprint training on resting serum irisin concentration—sprint training once daily vs. twice every other day,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 492–495, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Y. Huh, G. Panagiotou, V. Mougios et al., “FNDC5 and irisin in humans: I. Predictors of circulating concentrations in serum and plasma and II. mRNA expression and circulating concentrations in response to weight loss and exercise,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 61, no. 12, pp. 1725–1738, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. Pekkala, P. K. Wiklund, J. J. Hulmi et al., “Are skeletal muscle FNDC5 gene expression and irisin release regulated by exercise and related to health?” Journal of Physiology, vol. 591, no. 21, pp. 5393–5400, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Raschke, M. Elsen, H. Gassenhuber et al., “Evidence against a beneficial effect of irisin in humans,” PlOS One, vol. 8, no. 9, Article ID e73680, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. Gamas, P. Matafome, and R. Seicą, “Irisin and myonectin regulation in the insulin resistant muscle: implications to adipose tissue: muscle crosstalk,” Journal of Diabetes Research, vol. 2015, Article ID 359159, 8 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Hofmann, U. Elbelt, and A. Stengel, “Irisin as a muscle-derived hormone stimulating thermogenesis—a critical update,” Peptides, vol. 54, pp. 89–100, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. Dozio, A. E. Malavazos, E. Vianello et al., “Interleukin-15 and soluble interleukin-15 receptor α in coronary artery disease patients: association with epicardial fat and indices of adipose tissue distribution,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 3, Article ID e90960, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. Dozio, S. Briganti, E. Vianello et al., “Epicardial adipose tissue inflammation is related to vitamin D deficiency in patients affected by coronary artery disease,” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 267–273, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. A. Polyzos and C. S. Mantzoros, “An update on the validity of irisin assays and the link between irisin and hepatic metabolism,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 64, no. 9, pp. 937–942, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. R. Matthews, J. P. Hosker, A. S. Rudenski, B. A. Naylor, D. F. Treacher, and R. C. Turner, “Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and β-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man,” Diabetologia, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 412–419, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Hagströmer, P. Oja, and M. Sjöström, “The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ): a study of concurrent and construct validity,” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 755–762, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Y. Huh, V. Mougios, A. Skraparlis, A. Kabasakalis, and C. S. Mantzoros, “Irisin in response to acute and chronic whole-body vibration exercise in humans,” Metabolism, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 918–921, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Y. Huh, V. Mougios, A. Kabasakalis et al., “Exercise-induced irisin secretion is independent of age or fitness level and increased irisin may directly modulate muscle metabolism through AMPK activation,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 99, no. 11, pp. E2154–E2161, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. V. Singhal, E. A. Lawson, K. E. Ackerman et al., “Irisin levels are lower in young amenorrheic athletes compared with eumenorrheic athletes and non-athletes and are associated with bone density and strength estimates,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 6, Article ID e100218, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Ellefsen, O. Vikmoen, G. Slettaløkken et al., “Irisin and FNDC5: effects of 12-week strength training, and relations to muscle phenotype and body mass composition in untrained women,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 114, no. 9, pp. 1875–1888, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. Norheim, T. M. Langleite, M. Hjorth et al., “The effects of acute and chronic exercise on PGC-1α, irisin and browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue in humans,” FEBS Journal, vol. 281, no. 3, pp. 739–749, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. K. R. King-Morris, S. M. Deger, A. M. Hung et al., “Measurement and correlation of indices of insulin resistance in patients on peritoneal dialysis,” Peritoneal Dialysis International, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 433–441, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Sperling, T. Grzelak, M. Pelczyńska et al., “Concentrations of omentin and vaspin versus insulin resistance in obese individuals,” Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, vol. 83, pp. 542–547, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. Kurdiova, M. Balaz, M. Vician et al., “Effects of obesity, diabetes and exercise on Fndc5 gene expression and irisin release in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue: in vivo and in vitro studies,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 592, no. 5, pp. 1091–1107, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Belviranli, N. Okudan, B. Kabak, M. Erdoğan, and M. Karanfilci, “The relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor, irisin and cognitive skills of endurance athletes,” Physician and Sportsmedicine, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 290–296, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. Abali, I. Temel Yuksel, M. A. Yuksel et al., “Implications of circulating irisin and Fabp4 levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 36, pp. 897–901, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Adamska, M. Karczewska-Kupczewska, A. Lebkowska et al., “Serum irisin and its regulation by hyperinsulinemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome,” Endocrine Journal, vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 1107–1112, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. G. Lippi, M. Montagnana, G. L. Salvagno, M. Franchini, and G. C. Guidi, “Glycaemic control in athletes,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 7–10, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Li, M. Yang, X. Zhou et al., “Elevated circulating levels of irisin and the effect of metformin treatment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 100, pp. 1485–1493, 2015. View at Google Scholar