Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 8248725, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8248725
Research Article

Exercise Metabolism in Nonobese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Following the Acute Restoration of Normoglycaemia

1Medical Research Council/Arthritis Research UK Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research, School of Life Sciences, The University of Nottingham Medical School, Queen’s Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
2School of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, St Luke’s Campus, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK

Correspondence should be addressed to Kostas Tsintzas; ku.ca.mahgnitton@saztnist.satsok

Received 1 January 2017; Revised 9 February 2017; Accepted 14 February 2017; Published 29 May 2017

Academic Editor: Joseph F. Ndisang

Copyright © 2017 Christopher J. Gaffney et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Gatineau, C. Hancock, and N. Holman, “Adult obesity and type 2 diabetes,” Public Health England, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  2. E. L. Lim, K. G. Hollingsworth, B. S. Aribisala, M. J. Chen, J. C. Mathers, and R. Taylor, “Reversal of type 2 diabetes: normalisation of beta cell function in association with decreased pancreas and liver triacylglycerol,” Diabetologia, vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 2506–2514, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. E. P. Weiss, S. G. Albert, D. N. Reeds et al., “Calorie restriction and matched weight loss from exercise: independent and additive effects on glucoregulation and the incretin system in overweight women and men,” Diabetes Care, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 1253–1262, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Diabetes UK, “Diabetes facts and stats: 2015,” 2015. View at Google Scholar
  5. P. D. Barma, S. Ranabir, L. Prasad, and T. P. Singh, “Clinical and biochemical profile of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 15, Supplement 1, pp. S40–S43, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. A. Vaag and S. S. Lund, “Non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes and prediabetic subjects: distinct phenotypes requiring special diabetes treatment and (or) prevention?” Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 912–920, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. D. Hordern, D. W. Dunstan, J. B. Prins, M. K. Baker, M. A. Singh, and J. S. Coombes, “Exercise prescription for patients with type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes: a position statement from Exercise and Sport Science Australia,” Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 25–31, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. V. B. O’Leary, C. M. Marchetti, R. K. Krishnan, B. P. Stetzer, F. Gonzalez, and J. P. Kirwan, “Exercise-induced reversal of insulin resistance in obese elderly is associated with reduced visceral fat,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1584–1589, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. Umpierre, P. A. B. Ribeiro, B. D. Schaan, and J. P. Ribeiro, “Volume of supervised exercise training impacts glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review with meta-regression analysis,” Diabetologia, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 242–251, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. N. Zammitt and B. M. Frier, “Hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 2948–2961, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. R. Colberg, R. J. Sigal, B. Fernhall et al., “Exercise and type 2 diabetes: the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association: joint position statement,” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. e147–e167, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. L. Way, D. A. Hackett, M. K. Baker, and N. A. Johnson, “The effect of regular exercise on insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Diabetes and Metabolism Journal, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 253–271, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Giacca, Y. Groenewoud, E. Tsui, P. McClean, and B. Zinman, “Glucose production, utilization, and cycling in response to moderate exercise in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes and mild hyperglycemia,” Diabetes, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 1763–1770, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J.-W. Van Dijk, R. J. F. Manders, K. Tummers et al., “Both resistance-and endurance-type exercise reduce the prevalence of hyperglycaemia in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance and in insulin-treated and non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients,” Diabetologia, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1273–1282, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Terada, B. J. Wilson, E. Myette-Cόté et al., “Targeting specific interstitial glycemic parameters with high-intensity interval exercise and fasted-state exercise in type 2 diabetes,” Metabolism, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 599–608, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. A. DeFronzo, E. Ferrannini, Y. Sato, P. Felig, and J. Wahren, “Synergistic interaction between exercise and insulin on peripheral glucose uptake,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 1468–1474, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. I. K. Martin, A. Katz, and J. Wahren, “Splanchnic and muscle metabolism during exercise in NIDDM patients,” American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 269, no. 3 Part 1, pp. E583–E590, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  18. L. B. Borghouts, A. J. M. Wagenmakers, P. L. L. Goyens, and H. A. Keizer, “Substrate utilization in non-obese type II diabetic patients at rest and during exercise,” Clinical Science, vol. 103, no. 6, pp. 559–566, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. S. R. Colberg, J. M. Hagberg, S. D. McCole, J. M. Zmuda, P. D. Thompson, and D. E. Kelley, “Utilization of glycogen but not plasma glucose is reduced in individuals with NIDDM during mild-intensity exercise,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 2027–2033, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  20. G. F. Fletcher, P. A. Ades, P. Kligfield et al., “Exercise standards for testing and training,” Circulation, vol. 128, no. 8, pp. 873–934, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. W. N. Schofield, “Predicting basal metabolic rate, new standards and review of previous work,” Human Nutrition. Clinical Nutrition, vol. 39, Supplement 1, pp. 5–41, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  22. (DoH) Department of Health, “Report on Health and Social Subjects No 41, "Dietary reference values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom.",” Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. K. N. Frayn, “Calculation of substrate oxidation rates in vivo from gaseous exchange,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 628–634, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  24. N. Abumrad, D. Rabin, M. Diamond, and W. Lacy, “Use of a heated superficial hand vein as an alternative site for the measurement of amino acid concentrations and for the study of glucose and alanine kinetics in man,” Metabolism, vol. 30, no. 30, pp. 936–940, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. A. Borg, “Perceived exertion: a note on “history” and methods,” Medicine and Science in Sports, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 90–93, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  26. H. L. Minuk, M. Vranic, E. B. Marliss, A. K. Hanna, A. M. Albisser, and B. Zinman, “Glucoregulatory and metabolic response to exercise in obese noninsulin-dependent diabetes,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 240, no. 5, pp. E458–E464, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  27. S. Del Prato, M. Matsuda, D. C. Simonson et al., “Studies on the mass action effect of glucose in NIDDM and IDDM: evidence for glucose resistance,” Diabetologia, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 687–697, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. Hermansen, M. Colombo, H. Storgaard, A. ØStergaard, K. Kølendorf, and S. Madsbad, “Improved postprandial glycemic control with biphasic insulin aspart relative to biphasic insulin lispro and biphasic human insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 883–888, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. R. Farshchi, M. A. Taylor, and I. A. Macdonald, “Deleterious effects of omitting breakfast on insulin sensitivity and fasting lipid profiles in healthy lean women,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 388–396, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  30. P. J. Randle, P. B. Garland, C. N. Hales, and E. A. Newsholme, “The glucose fatty-acid cycle. Its role in insulin sensitivity and the metabolic disturbances of diabetes mellitus,” Lancet (London, England), vol. 1, no. 7285, pp. 785–789, 1963. View at Google Scholar
  31. G. Boden, “Obesity, insulin resistance and free fatty acids,” Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 139–143, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. O. Akanji, E. Osifo, M. Kirk, and T. D. Hockaday, “The effects of changes in plasma nonesterified fatty acid levels on oxidative metabolism during moderate exercise in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” Metabolism, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 426–434, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Buscemi, M. Donatelli, G. Grosso et al., “Resting energy expenditure in type 2 diabetic patients and the effect of insulin bolus,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 605–610, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Y. L. Muller, P. Piaggi, D. Hoffman et al., “Common genetic variation in the glucokinase gene (GCK) is associated with type 2 diabetes and rates of carbohydrate oxidation and energy expenditure,” Diabetologia, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 1382–1390, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. Gougeon, “Thermic and metabolic responses to oral glucose in obese subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus treated with insulin or a very-low-energy diet,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 78–86, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  36. A. Franssila-Kallunki and L. Groop, “Factors associated with basal metabolic rate in patients with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus,” Diabetologia, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 962–966, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. Z. Yang, C. A. Scott, C. Mao, J. Tang, and A. J. Farmer, “Resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Sports Medicine, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 487–499, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus