Journal of Diabetes Research / 2018 / Article / Fig 2

Review Article

Diabetic Enteropathy: From Molecule to Mechanism-Based Treatment

Figure 2

Hyperglycaemia induced intracellular biochemical changes in neurons. (a) Generation of ROS. (b) Consequences of ROS generation. See text and Table 1 for explanation. Abbreviations: 1,3BPG: 1,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid; Acetyl-CoA: acetyl coenzyme A; ADP: adenosine diphosphate; AGE: advanced glycation end products; ATP: adenosine triphosphate; DAG: diacylglycerol; DHAP; dihydroxyacetone phosphate; e: electron; F-1,6-BP: fructose-1,6-bisphosphate; F-6-P: fructose-6-phosphate; FAD: flavin adenine dinucleotide (oxidised); FADH2: flavin adenine dinucleotide (reduced); GAP: glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate; GAPH: glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GlcN-6-P: glucosamine 6-phosphate; GR: glutathione reductase; GSH: glutathione; GSSG: glutathione disulphide; H+: proton; NAD+: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (oxidised); NADH: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced); NADP+: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (oxidised); NADPH: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced); O2: oxygen: O2•−: superoxide; P: phosphor group; PARP-1: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1; PKC: protein kinase C; PP: diphosphate; RAGE: receptor for advanced glycation end products; ROS: reactive oxygen species; UDP-GlcNAc: uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine; UTP: uracil triphosphate.

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