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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012, Article ID 715190, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/715190
Review Article

Immunopathological Roles of Cytokines, Chemokines, Signaling Molecules, and Pattern-Recognition Receptors in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

1Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 30-32 Ngan Shing Street, Shatin, Hong Kong
2Department of Rheumatology, Hospital Selayang, Lebuhraya Selayang-Kepong, 68100 Batu Caves, Malaysia
3Department of Chemical Pathology, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 30-32 Ngan Shing Street, Shatin, Hong Kong

Received 12 July 2011; Accepted 11 October 2011

Academic Editor: Philip Alex

Copyright © 2012 Shui-Lian Yu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with unknown etiology affecting more than one million individuals each year. It is characterized by B- and T-cell hyperactivity and by defects in the clearance of apoptotic cells and immune complexes. Understanding the complex process involved and the interaction between various cytokines, chemokines, signaling molecules, and pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) in the immune pathways will provide valuable information on the development of novel therapeutic targets for treating SLE. In this paper, we review the immunopathological roles of novel cytokines, chemokines, signaling molecules, PRRs, and their interactions in immunoregulatory networks and suggest how their disturbances may implicate pathological conditions in SLE.