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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012, Article ID 818214, 9 pages
Review Article

Novel Anti-Melanoma Immunotherapies: Disarming Tumor Escape Mechanisms

1Ella Institute for Melanoma, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan 52621, Israel
2Pontifax Venture, Herzliya, Israel
3Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 61390, Israel
4cCAM Biotherapeutics Ltd., Kiryat Shmona 11013, Israel
5Talpiot Medical Leadership Program, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat-Gan 52621, Israel

Received 24 January 2012; Accepted 8 April 2012

Academic Editor: Senthamil R. Selvan

Copyright © 2012 Sivan Sapoznik et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The immune system fights cancer and sometimes temporarily eliminates it or reaches an equilibrium stage of tumor growth. However, continuous immunological pressure also selects poorly immunogenic tumor variants that eventually escape the immune control system. Here, we focus on metastatic melanoma, a highly immunogenic tumor, and on anti-melanoma immunotherapies, which recently, especially following the FDA approval of Ipilimumab, gained interest from drug development companies. We describe new immunomodulatory approaches currently in the development pipeline, focus on the novel CEACAM1 immune checkpoint, and compare its potential to the extensively described targets, CTLA4 and PD1. This paper combines multi-disciplinary approaches and describes anti-melanoma immunotherapies from molecular, medical, and business angles.