Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 967584, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/967584
Clinical Study

Association of Intrarenal B-Cell Infiltrates with Clinical Outcome in Lupus Nephritis: A Study of 192 Cases

1Department of Rheumatology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 145 Shan Dong Zhong Road, Shanghai 200001, China
2Department of Nephrology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 145 Shan Dong Zhong Road, Shanghai 200001, China

Received 4 February 2012; Revised 25 April 2012; Accepted 25 April 2012

Academic Editor: Harris Perlman

Copyright © 2012 Yan Shen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. C. Mok, “Prognostic factors in lupus nephritis,” Lupus, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 39–44, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. S. Cameron, “Lupus nephritis,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 413–424, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. A. Petri, P. J. Mease, J. T. Merrill et al., “Effects of prasterone on disease activity and symptoms in women with active systemic lupus erythematosus: results of a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 2858–2868, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. H. Plotz, “The autoantibody repertoire: searching for order,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 73–78, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. D. Cohen, N. Calvaresi, S. Armelloni et al., “CD20-positive infiltrates in human membranous glomerulonephritis,” Journal of Nephrology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 328–333, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. L. Martins, C. Silva, D. Martini, and I. L. Noronha, “Detection of B lymphocytes (CD20+) in renal allograft biopsy specimens,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 432–434, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. O. M. Steinmetz, U. Panzer, U. Kneissler et al., “BCA-1/CXCL13 expression is associated with CXCR5-positive B-cell cluster formation in acute renal transplant rejection,” Kidney International, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 1616–1621, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. V. Angeli, F. Ginhoux, J. Llodrà et al., “B cell-driven lymphangiogenesis in inflamed lymph nodes enhances dendritic cell mobilization,” Immunity, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 203–215, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. O. T. M. Chan, L. G. Hannum, A. M. Haberman, M. P. Madaio, and M. J. Shlomchik, “A novel mouse with B cells but lacking serum antibody reveals an antibody-independent role for B cells in murine lupus,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 189, no. 10, pp. 1639–1647, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. O. M. Steinmetz, J. Velden, U. Kneissler et al., “Analysis and classification of B-cell infiltrates in lupus and ANCA-associated nephritis,” Kidney International, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 448–457, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Takemura, P. A. Klimiuk, A. Braun, J. J. Goronzy, and C. M. Weyand, “T cell activation in rheumatoid synovium is B cell dependent,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 167, no. 8, pp. 4710–4718, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. Salomonsson, M. V. Jonsson, K. Skarstein et al., “Cellular basis of ectopic germinal center formation and autoantibody production in the target organ of patients With Sjogren's Syndrome,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 3187–3201, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. C. Hochberg, “Updating the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus,” Arthritis and rheumatism, vol. 40, no. 9, p. 1725, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. J. Weening, V. D. D'Agati, M. M. Schwartz et al., “The classification of glomerulonephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus revisited,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 241–250, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. A. Austin 3rd, L. R. Muenz, and K. M. Joyce, “Diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis: identification of specific pathologic features affecting renal outcome,” Kidney International, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 689–695, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Segerer and D. Schlöndorff, “B cells and tertiary lymphoid organs in renal inflammation,” Kidney International, vol. 73, no. 5, pp. 533–537, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. Bhat and J. Radhakrishnan, “B lymphocytes and lupus nephritis: new insights into pathogenesis and targeted therapies,” Kidney International, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 261–268, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Sarwal, M. S. Chua, N. Kambham et al., “Molecular heterogeneity in acute renal allograft rejection identified by DNA microarray profiling,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 349, no. 2, pp. 125–138, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. Heller, M. T. Lindenmeyer, C. D. Cohen et al., “The contribution of B cells to renal interstitial inflammation,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 170, no. 2, pp. 457–468, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. F. Aloisi and R. Pujol-Borrell, “Lymphoid neogenesis in chronic inflammatory diseases,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 205–217, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Chang, S. G. Henderson, D. Brandt et al., “In situ B Cell-mediated immune responses and tubulointerstitial inflammation in human lupus nephritis,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 186, no. 3, pp. 1849–1860, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. L. Plosker and D. P. Figgitt, “Rituximab: a review of its use in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia,” Drugs, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 803–843, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Vigna-Perez, B. Hernández-Castro, O. Paredes-Saharopulos et al., “Clinical and immunological effects of Rituximab in patients with lupus nephritis refractory to conventional therapy: a pilot study,” Arthritis Research and Therapy, vol. 8, no. 3, article R83, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. G. C. Smith, R. B. Jones, S. M. Burns, and D. R. W. Jayne, “Long-term comparison of rituximab treatment for refractory systemic lupus erythematosus and vasculitis: remission, relapse, and re-treatment,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 2970–2982, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Melander, M. Sallée, P. Trolliet et al., “Rituximab in severe lupus nephritis: early B-cell depletion affects long-term renal outcome,” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 579–587, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. A. Neusser, M. T. Lindenmeyer, I. Edenhofer et al., “Intrarenal production of B-cell survival factors in human lupus nephritis,” Modern Pathology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 98–107, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. J. Wallace, W. Stohl, R. A. Furie et al., “A phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study of belimumab in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus,” Arthritis Care and Research, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 1168–1178, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus