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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2012, Article ID 970789, 16 pages
Review Article

Current Status of the Immunomodulation and Immunomediated Therapeutic Strategies for Multiple Sclerosis

1Department of Pediatrics, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan
2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan
3Center for Composite Tissue Allotransplantation, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, New Taipei City 333, Taiwan
4Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan
5Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan

Received 5 July 2011; Accepted 12 September 2011

Academic Editor: Philip Alex

Copyright © 2012 Shyi-Jou Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, and CD4+ T cells form the core immunopathogenic cascade leading to chronic inflammation. Traditionally, Th1 cells (interferon-γ-producing CD4+ T cells) driven by interleukin 12 (IL12) were considered to be the encephalitogenic T cells in MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Currently, Th17 cells (Il17-producing CD4+ T cells) are considered to play a fundamental role in the immunopathogenesis of EAE. This paper highlights the growing evidence that Th17 cells play the core role in the complex adaptive immunity of EAE/MS and discusses the roles of the associated immune cells and cytokines. These constitute the modern immunological basis for the development of novel clinical and preclinical immunomodulatory therapies for MS discussed in this paper.