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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2013, Article ID 210506, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/210506
Review Article

Transplant Tolerance: New Insights and Strategies for Long-Term Allograft Acceptance

1Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, 7800024 Santiago, Chile
2Programa de Ciencias Biomedicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, 8380453 Santiago, Chile
3Fundacion Ciencia y Vida, 7780272 Santiago, Chile
4Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Andres Bello, 8370146 Santiago, Chile

Received 30 January 2013; Revised 12 April 2013; Accepted 13 April 2013

Academic Editor: Nicolaus Kroger

Copyright © 2013 Paulina Ruiz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

One of the greatest advances in medicine during the past century is the introduction of organ transplantation. This therapeutic strategy designed to treat organ failure and organ dysfunction allows to prolong the survival of many patients that are faced with no other treatment option. Today, organ transplantation between genetically dissimilar individuals (allogeneic grafting) is a procedure widely used as a therapeutic alternative in cases of organ failure, hematological disease treatment, and some malignancies. Despite the potential of organ transplantation, the administration of immunosuppressive drugs required for allograft acceptance induces severe immunosuppression in transplanted patients, which leads to serious side effects such as infection with opportunistic pathogens and the occurrence of neoplasias, in addition to the known intrinsic toxicity of these drugs. To solve this setback in allotransplantation, researchers have focused on manipulating the immune response in order to create a state of tolerance rather than unspecific immunosuppression. Here, we describe the different treatments and some of the novel immunotherapeutic strategies undertaken to induce transplantation tolerance.