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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2013, Article ID 545621, 7 pages
Review Article

New Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Method: Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Plus Thymus Transplantation for Intractable Diseases

1Department of Pathology, Kansai Medical University Kori Hospital, 8-45 Korihondori, Neyagawa, Osaka 572-8851, Japan
2Department of Clinical Sciences and Laboratory Medicine, Kansai Medical University, 2-5-1 Shinmachi, Hirakata City, Osaka 573-1010, Japan

Received 9 January 2013; Revised 17 March 2013; Accepted 19 April 2013

Academic Editor: Margaret G. Petroff

Copyright © 2013 Naoki Hosaka. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has become a valuable strategy for some intractable diseases, a number of problems remain to be resolved. We have developed a new HSCT method, HSCT + thymus transplantation (TT) from the same donor, which induces elevated T cell function with mild graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in comparison to conventional HSCT alone and HSCT + donor lymphocyte infusion (HSCT + DLI). This new method is effective in the treatment of several intractable diseases and conditions, such as autoimmune diseases in aging, advanced malignant tumors, exposure to supralethal irradiation, multiple organ transplantation from different donors, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, for which conventional methods are ineffective. Our findings suggest that allo-HSCT + TT is preferable to conventional allo-HSCT alone or allo-HSCT + DLI. This method may become a valuable next-generation HSCT technique.