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Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2013, Article ID 597920, 14 pages
Review Article

Interactions between Cytokines, Congenital Anomalies of Kidney and Urinary Tract and Chronic Kidney Disease

1Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), 30130-100 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
2National Institute of Science and Technology of Molecular Medicine (INCT-MM), Faculty of Medicine, UFMG, 30130-100 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
3Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Medical Investigation, Avenida Alfredo Balena, 190, 2nd Foor, Room No. 281, Faculty of Medicine, UFMG, 30130-100 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

Received 29 March 2013; Revised 18 July 2013; Accepted 25 July 2013

Academic Editor: Osamu Takase

Copyright © 2013 Ana Cristina Simões e Silva et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Fetal hydronephrosis is the most common anomaly detected on antenatal ultrasound, affecting 1–5% of pregnancies. Postnatal investigation has the major aim in detecting infants with severe urinary tract obstruction and clinically significant urinary tract anomalies among the heterogeneous universe of patients. Congenital uropathies are frequent causes of pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD). Imaging techniques clearly contribute to this purpose; however, sometimes, these exams are invasive, very expensive, and not sufficient to precisely define the best approach as well as the prognosis. Recently, biomarkers have become a focus of clinical research as potentially useful diagnostic tools in pediatric urological diseases. In this regard, recent studies suggest a role for cytokines and chemokines in the pathophysiology of CAKUT and for the progression to CKD. Some authors proposed that the evaluation of these inflammatory mediators might help the management of postnatal uropathies and the detection of patients with high risk to developed chronic kidney disease. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to revise general aspects of cytokines and the link between cytokines, CAKUT, and CKD by including experimental and clinical evidence.