Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Volume 2013, Article ID 890517, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/890517
Review Article

New Insights in Recurrent HCV Infection after Liver Transplantation

1Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
2Hepatobiliary Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
3Division of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, No. 100, Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
4Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Received 1 August 2012; Revised 17 March 2013; Accepted 31 March 2013

Academic Editor: Hans Hellmut Hirsch

Copyright © 2013 Shih-Hsien Hsu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. E. Evermart, Y. Wei, H. Eng et al., “Recurrent and new hepatitis C virus infection after liver transplantation,” Hepatology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 1220–1226, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. N. A. Terrault, “Treatment of recurrent hepatitis C in liver transplant recipients,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 3, no. 10, supplement 2, pp. S125–S131, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Garcia-Retortillo, X. Forns, A. Feliu et al., “Hepatitis C virus kinetics during and immediately after liver transplantation,” Hepatology, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 680–687, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. G. W. McCaughan and A. Zekry, “Mechanisms of HCV reinfection and allograft damage after liver transplantation,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 368–374, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. B. Guerrero, K. P. Batts, L. J. Burgart et al., “Early detection of hepatitis C allograft reinfection after orthotopic liver transplantation: a molecular and histologic study,” Modern Pathology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 229–237, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. L. Lim, G. K. K. Lau, G. L. Davis, D. J. Dolson, and J. Y. N. Lau, “Cholestatic hepatitis leading to hepatic failure in a patient with organ-transmitted hepatitis C virus infection,” Gastroenterology, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 248–251, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. E. J. Gane, B. G. Portmann, N. V. Naoumov et al., “Long-term outcome of hepatitis C infection after liver transplantation,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 334, no. 13, pp. 815–820, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Berenguer, “Natural history of recurrent hepatitis C,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 8, no. 10, supplement 1, pp. S14–S18, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. M. Cameron, R. M. Ghobrial, J. R. Hiatt et al., “Effect of nonviral factors on hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 244, no. 4, pp. 563–568, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Berenguer, M. Prieto, F. S. Juan et al., “Contribution of donor age to the recent decrease in patient survival among HCV-infected liver transplant recipients,” Hepatology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 202–210, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. R. Lake, J. S. Shorr, B. J. Steffen, A. H. Chu, R. D. Gordon, and R. H. Wiesner, “Differential effects of donor age in liver transplant recipients infected with hepatitis B, hepatitis C and without viral hepatitis,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 549–557, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Garcia-Retortillo, X. Forns, J. M. Llovet et al., “Hepatitis C recurrence is more severe after living donor compared to cadaveric liver transplantation,” Hepatology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 699–707, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. Guo, M. Orrego, H. Rodriguez-Luna et al., “Living donor liver transplantation for hepatitis C-related cirrhosis: no difference in histological recurrence when compared to deceased donor liver transplantation recipients,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 560–565, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. A. Powers, R. M. Ribeiro, K. Patel et al., “Kinetics of hepatitis C virus reinfection after liver transplantation,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 207–216, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. Ballardini, E. De Raffele, P. Groff et al., “Timing of reinfection and mechanisms of hepatocellular damage in transplanted hepatitis C virus-reinfected liver,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 10–20, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  16. M. G. Pessoa, N. Bzowej, M. Berenguer et al., “Evolution of hepatitis C virus quasispecies in patients with severe cholestatic hepatitis after liver transplantation,” Hepatology, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1513–1520, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Charlton, E. Seaberg, R. Wiesner et al., “Predictors of patient and graft survival following liver transplantation for hepatitis C,” Hepatology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 823–830, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. G. Nudo, R. A. Cortes, D. Weppler, E. R. Schiff, A. G. Tzakis, and A. Regev, “Effect of pretransplant hepatitis C virus RNA status on posttransplant outcome,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 1449–1455, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. Feray, M. Gigou, D. Samuel et al., “Influence of the genotypes of hepatitis C virus on the severity of recurrent liver disease after liver transplantation,” Gastroenterology, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 1088–1096, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. Feray, L. Caccamo, G. J. M. Alexander et al., “European collaborative study on factors influencing outcome after liver transplantation for hepatitis C,” Gastroenterology, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 619–625, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G. P. Pageaux, J. Ducos, A. M. Mondain et al., “Hepatitis C virus genotypes and quantitation of serum hepatitis C virus RNA in liver transplant recipients: relationship with severity of histological recurrence and implications in the pathogenesis of HCV infection,” Liver Transplantation and Surgery, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 501–505, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Gayowski, N. Singh, I. R. Marino et al., “Hepatitis C virus genotypes in liver transplant recipients: impact on posttransplant recurrence, infections, response to interferon-α therapy and outcome,” Transplantation, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 422–426, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. Ge, J. Fellay, A. J. Thompson et al., “Genetic variation in IL28B predicts hepatitis C treatment-induced viral clearance,” Nature, vol. 461, no. 7262, pp. 399–401, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. V. Suppiah, M. Moldovan, G. Ahlenstiel et al., “IL28B is associated with response to chronic hepatitis C interferon-α and ribavirin therapy,” Nature Genetics, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 1100–1104, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. L. Thomas, C. L. Thio, M. P. Martin et al., “Genetic variation in IL28B and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus,” Nature, vol. 461, no. 7265, pp. 798–801, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. R. Charlton, A. Thompson, B. J. Veldt et al., “Interleukin-28B polymorphisms are associated with histological recurrence and treatment response following liver transplantation in patients with hepatitis C virus infection,” Hepatology, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 317–324, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Humara, D. Kumar, J. Raboud et al., “Interactions between cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus-6, and the recurrence of hepatitis C after liver transplantation,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 461–466, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. N. Singh, S. Husain, D. R. Carrigan et al., “Impact of human herpesvirus-6 on the frequency and severity of recurrent hepatitis C virus hepatitis in liver transplant recipients,” Clinical Transplantation, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 92–96, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. W. Bosch, M. G. Heckman, S. Pungpapong, N. N. Diehl, J. A. Shalev, and W. C. Hellinger, “Association of cytomegalovirus infection and disease with recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation,” Transplantation, vol. 93, no. 7, pp. 723–728, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  30. G. Nebbia, F. M. Mattes, E. Cholongitas et al., “Exploring the bidirectional interactions between human cytomegalovirus and hepatitis C virus replication after liver transplantation,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 130–135, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. E. J. Gane, N. V. Naoumov, K. P. Qian et al., “A longitudinal analysis of hepatitis C virus replication following liver transplantation,” Gastroenterology, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 167–177, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. W. McCaughan, N. A. Shackel, P. Bertolino, and D. G. Bowen, “Molecular and cellular aspects of hepatitis C virus reinfection after liver transplantation: how the early phase impacts on outcomes,” Transplantation, vol. 87, no. 8, pp. 1105–1111, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. B. Roche and D. Samuel, “Risk factors for hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 14, supplement 1, pp. 89–96, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Charlton, “Hepatitis C infection in liver transplantation,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 197–203, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. Ciesek, E. Steinmann, M. Iken et al., “Glucocorticosteroids increase cell entry by hepatitis C virus,” Gastroenterology, vol. 138, no. 5, pp. 1875–1884, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. T. Gerlach, H. M. Diepolder, M. C. Jung et al., “Recurrence of hepatitis C virus after loss of virus-specific CD4+ T-cell response in acute hepatitis C,” Gastroenterology, vol. 117, no. 4, pp. 933–941, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. H. R. Rosen, D. J. Hinrichs, D. R. Gretch et al., “Association of multispecific CD4+ response to hepatitis C and severity of recurrence after liver transplantation,” Gastroenterology, vol. 117, no. 4, pp. 926–932, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. P. C. Boor, H. J. Metselaar, S. Mancham, H. W. Tilanus, J. G. Kusters, and J. Kwekkeboom, “Prednisolone suppresses the function and promotes apoptosis of plasmacytoid dendritic cells,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 2332–2341, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. L. Segev, S. M. Sozio, E. J. Shin et al., “Steroid avoidance in liver transplantation: meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized trials,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 512–525, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. Vivarelli, P. Burra, G. L. Barba et al., “Influence of steroids on HCV recurrence after liver transplantation: a prospective study,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 793–798, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. D. J. Favreau, M. Meessen-Pinard, M. Desforges, and P. J. Talbot, “Human coronavirus-induced neuronal programmed cell death is cyclophilin d dependent and potentially caspase dispensable,” Journal of Virology, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 81–93, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  42. K. Watashi, N. Ishii, M. Hijikata et al., “Cyclophilin B is a functional regulator of hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase,” Molecular Cell, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 111–122, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. Nakagawa, N. Sakamoto, Y. Tanabe et al., “Suppression of hepatitis C virus replication by cyclosporin A is mediated by blockade of cyclophilins,” Gastroenterology, vol. 129, no. 3, pp. 1031–1041, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. D. N. Samonakis, G. Germani, and A. K. Burroughs, “Immunosuppression and HCV recurrence after liver transplantation,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 973–983, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  45. S. D. Henry, H. J. Metselaar, R. C. B. Lonsdale et al., “Mycophenolic acid inhibits hepatitis C virus replication and acts in synergy with cyclosporin A and interferon-alpha,” Gastroenterology, vol. 131, no. 5, pp. 1452–1462, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. Q. Pan, P. E. de Ruiter, H. J. Metselaar et al., “Mycophenolic acid augments interferon-stimulated gene expression and inhibits hepatitis C Virus infection in vitro and in vivo,” Hepatology, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1673–1683, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  47. L. Rostaing and N. Kamar, “mTOR inhibitor/proliferation signal inhibitors: entering or leaving the field?” Journal of Nephrology, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 133–142, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. E. Krieger, M. B. Zeisel, C. Davis et al., “Inhibition of hepatitis c virus infection by anti-claudin-1 antibodies is mediated by neutralization of E2-CD81-claudin-1 associations,” Hepatology, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 1144–1157, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. D. Sir, W. L. Chen, J. Choi, T. Wakita, T. S. B. Yen, and J. H. J. Ou, “Induction of incomplete autophagic response by hepatitis C virus via the unfolded protein response,” Hepatology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 1054–1061, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. C. Guévin, D. Manna, C. Bélanger, K. V. Konan, P. Mak, and P. Labonté, “Autophagy protein ATG5 interacts transiently with the hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase (NS5B) early during infection,” Virology, vol. 405, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. Shrivastava, A. Raychoudhuri, R. Steele, R. Ray, and R. B. Ray, “Knockdown of autophagy enhances the innate immune response in hepatitis C virus-infected hepatocytes,” Hepatology, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 406–414, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. P. Burra, “Hepatitis C,” Seminars in Liver Disease, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 53–65, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Berenguer, M. Prieto, J. M. Rayon et al., “Natural history of clinically compensated hepatitis C virus-related graft cirrhosis after liver transplantation,” Hepatology, vol. 32, no. 4 I, pp. 852–858, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. B. Dominguez-Gil and J. M. Morales, “Transplantation in the patient with hepatitis C,” Transplant International, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 1117–1131, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. Willems, H. J. Metselaar, H. W. Tilanus, S. W. Schalm, and R. A. De Man, “Liver transplantation and hepatitis C,” Transplant International, vol. 15, no. 2-3, pp. 61–72, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. L. M. Forman, J. D. Lewis, J. A. Berlin, H. I. Feldman, and M. R. Lucey, “The association between hepatitis C infection and survival after orthotopic liver transplantation,” Gastroenterology, vol. 122, no. 4, pp. 889–896, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. A. Carrion, E. Martinez-Bauer, G. Crespo et al., “Antiviral therapy increases the risk of bacterial infections in HCV-infected cirrhotic patients awaiting liver transplantation: a retrospective study,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 719–728, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. G. T. Everson, J. Trotter, L. Forman et al., “Treatment of advanced hepatitis C with a low accelerating dosage regimen of antiviral therapy,” Hepatology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 255–262, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J. G. McHutchison, G. T. Everson, S. C. Gordon et al., “Telaprevir with peginterferon and ribavirin for chronic HCV genotype 1 infection,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, no. 18, pp. 1827–1838, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. C. Hezode, N. Forestier, G. Dusheiko et al., “Telaprevir and peginterferon with or without ribavirin for chronic HCV infection,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, no. 18, pp. 1839–1850, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. P. Y. Kwo, E. J. Lawitz, J. McCone et al., “Efficacy of boceprevir, an NS3 protease inhibitor, in combination with peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin in treatment-naive patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C infection (SPRINT-1): an open-label, randomised, multicentre phase 2 trial,” The Lancet, vol. 376, no. 9742, pp. 705–716, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. G. L. Davis, D. R. Nelson, N. Terrault et al., “A randomized, open-label study to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of human hepatitis C immune globulin (Civacir) in liver transplant recipients,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 941–949, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. T. D. Schiano, M. Charlton, Z. Younossi et al., “Monoclonal antibody HCV-AbXTL68 in patients undergoing liver transplantation for HCV: results of a phase 2 randomized study,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1381–1389, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. V. Mazzaferro, “Prevention of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation with early interferon and ribavirin treatment,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 33, no. 1-2, pp. 1355–1357, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. Y. Sugawara, M. Makuuchi, Y. Matsui et al., “Preemptive therapy for hepatitis C virus after living-donor liver transplantation,” Transplantation, vol. 78, no. 9, pp. 1308–1311, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. N. Singh, T. Gayowski, C. F. Wannstedt et al., “Interferon-α for prophylaxis of recurrent viral hepatitis C in liver transplant recipients: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial,” Transplantation, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 82–86, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. P. A. Sheiner, P. Boros, F. M. Klion et al., “The efficacy of prophylactic interferon alfa-2b in preventing recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation,” Hepatology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 831–838, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. N. Chalasani, C. Manzarbeitia, P. Ferenci et al., “Peginterferon Alfa-2a for hepatitis C after liver transplantation: two randomized, controlled trials,” Hepatology, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 289–298, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. A. K. Shergill, M. Khalili, S. Straley et al., “Applicability, tolerability and efficacy of preemptive antiviral therapy in hepatitis C-infected patients undergoing liver transplantation,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 118–124, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. C. S. Wang, H. H. Ko, E. M. Yoshida, C. A. Marra, and K. Richardson, “Interferon-based combination anti-viral therapy for hepatitis C virus after liver transplantation: a review and quantitative analysis,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 1586–1599, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. M. Berenguer, “Systematic review of the treatment of established recurrent hepatitis C with pegylated interferon in combination with ribavirin,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 274–287, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. E. Xirouchakis, C. Triantos, P. Manousou et al., “Pegylated-interferon and ribavirin in liver transplant candidates and recipients with HCV cirrhosis: systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective controlled studies,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 699–709, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. P. Guillouche and C. Feray, “Systematic review: anti-viral therapy of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 163–174, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. C. M. Lange, D. Moradpour, A. Doehring et al., “Impact of donor and recipient IL28B rs12979860 genotypes on hepatitis C virus liver graft reinfection,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 322–327, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. A. Carrion, M. Navasa, M. Garcia-Retortillo et al., “Efficacy of antiviral therapy on hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation: a randomized controlled study,” Gastroenterology, vol. 132, no. 5, pp. 1746–1756, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. G. Ghany, D. R. Nelson, D. B. Strader, D. L. Thomas, and L. B. Seeff, “An update on treatment of genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus infection: 2011 practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases,” Hepatology, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 1433–1444.
  77. E. Hulskotte, S. Gupta, F. Xuan et al., “Pharmacokinetic interaction between the hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor boceprevir and cyclosporine and tacrolimus in healthy volunteers,” Hepatology, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 1622–1630, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  78. V. Garg, R. van Heeswijk, J. Eun Lee, K. Alves, P. Nadkarni, and X. Luo, “Effect of telaprevir on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine and tacrolimus,” Hepatology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 20–27, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. A. Coilly, B. Roche, and D. Samuel, “Current management and perspectives for HCV recurrence after liver transplantation,” Liver International, vol. 33, supplement 1, pp. 56–62, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  80. K. S. Gurusamy, B. Osmani, E. Xirouchakis, A. K. Burroughs, and B. R. Davidson, “Antiviral therapy for recurrent liver graft infection with hepatitis C virus,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, p. CD006803, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. J. M. Pestka, M. B. Zeisel, E. Blaser et al., “Rapid induction of virus-neutralizing antibodies and viral clearance in a single-source outbreak of hepatitis C,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 104, no. 14, pp. 6025–6030, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. M. B. Zeisel, F. L. Cosset, and T. F. Baumert, “Host neutralizing responses and pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus infection,” Hepatology, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 299–307, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. G. Vieyres, X. Thomas, V. Descamps, G. Duverlie, A. H. Patel, and J. Dubuisson, “Characterization of the envelope glycoproteins associated with infectious hepatitis C virus,” Journal of Virology, vol. 84, no. 19, pp. 10159–10168, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. D. Lavillette, E. I. Pecheur, P. Donot et al., “Characterization of fusion determinants points to the involvement of three discrete regions of both E1 and E2 glycoproteins in the membrane fusion process of hepatitis C virus,” Journal of Virology, vol. 81, no. 16, pp. 8752–8765, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. B. Bartosch, A. Vitelli, C. Granier et al., “Cell entry of hepatitis C virus requires a set of co-receptors that include the CD81 tetraspanin and the SR-B1 scavenger receptor,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 278, no. 43, pp. 41624–41630, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. Z. Y. Keck, K. Machida, M. M. C. Lai, J. K. Ball, A. H. Patel, and S. K. H. Foung, “Therapeutic control of hepatitis C virus: the role of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies,” Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 317, pp. 1–38, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. M. Law, T. Maruyama, J. Lewis et al., “Broadly neutralizing antibodies protect against hepatitis C virus quasispecies challenge,” Nature Medicine, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 25–27, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. R. F. Clayton, A. Owsianka, J. Aitken, S. Graham, D. Bhella, and A. H. Patel, “Analysis of antigenicity and topology of E2 glycoprotein present on recombinant hepatitis C virus-like particles,” Journal of Virology, vol. 76, no. 15, pp. 7672–7682, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. J. A. McKeating, L. Q. Zhang, C. Logvinoff et al., “Diverse hepatitis C virus glycoproteins mediate viral infection in a CD81-dependent manner,” Journal of Virology, vol. 78, no. 16, pp. 8496–8505, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. C. Bertaux and T. Dragic, “Different domains of CD81 mediate distinct stages of hepatitis C virus pseudoparticle entry,” Journal of Virology, vol. 80, no. 10, pp. 4940–4948, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. A. M. Owsianka, J. M. Timms, A. W. Tarr et al., “Identification of conserved residues in the E2 envelope glycoprotein of the hepatitis C virus that are critical for CD81 binding,” Journal of Virology, vol. 80, no. 17, pp. 8695–8704, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. M. Krieger, “Scavenger receptor class b type I is a multiligand hdl receptor that influences diverse physiologic systems,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 108, no. 6, pp. 793–797, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. E. Scarselli, H. Ansuini, R. Cerino et al., “The human scavenger receptor class B type I is a novel candidate receptor for the hepatitis C virus,” The EMBO Journal, vol. 21, no. 19, pp. 5017–5025, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. P. Maillard, T. Huby, U. Andréo, M. Moreau, J. Chapman, and A. Budkowska, “The interaction of natural hepatitis C virus with human scavenger receptor SR-BI/Cla1 is mediated by ApoB-containing lipoproteins,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 735–737, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. T. Hishiki, Y. Shimizu, R. Tobita et al., “Infectivity of hepatitis C virus is influenced by association with apolipoprotein E isoforms,” Journal of Virology, vol. 84, no. 22, pp. 12048–12057, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. M. Furuse, K. Fujita, T. Hiiragi, K. Fujimoto, and S. Tsukita, “Claudin-1 and -2: novel integral membrane proteins localizing at tight junctions with no sequence similarity to occludin,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 141, no. 7, pp. 1539–1550, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. G. M. Reynolds, H. J. Harris, A. Jennings et al., “Hepatitis C virus receptor expression in normal and diseased liver tissue,” Hepatology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 418–427, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. M. J. Evans, T. Von Hahn, D. M. Tscherne et al., “Claudin-1 is a hepatitis C virus co-receptor required for a late step in entry,” Nature, vol. 446, no. 7137, pp. 801–805, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. A. Ploss, M. J. Evans, V. A. Gaysinskaya et al., “Human occludin is a hepatitis C virus entry factor required for infection of mouse cells,” Nature, vol. 457, no. 7231, pp. 882–886, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. S. Wunschmann, J. D. Medh, D. Klinzmann, W. N. Schmidt, and J. T. Stapleton, “Characterization of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HCV E2 interactions with CD81 and the low-density lipoprotein receptor,” Journal of Virology, vol. 74, no. 21, pp. 10055–10062, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. V. Agnello, G. Ábel, M. Elfahal, G. B. Knight, and Q. X. Zhang, “Hepatitis C virus and other flaviviridae viruses enter cells via low density lipoprotein receptor,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 96, no. 22, pp. 12766–12771, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. B. Sainz Jr., N. Barretto, D. N. Martin, : et al., “Identification of the Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 cholesterol absorption receptor as a new hepatitis C virus entry factor,” Nature Medicine, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 281–285, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  103. J. Lupberger, M. B. Zeisel, F. Xiao et al., “EGFR and EphA2 are host factors for hepatitis C virus entry and possible targets for antiviral therapy,” Nature Medicine, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 589–595, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. H. J. Harris, M. J. Farquhar, C. J. Mee et al., “CD81 and claudin 1 coreceptor association: role in hepatitis C virus entry,” Journal of Virology, vol. 82, no. 10, pp. 5007–5020, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. H. J. Harris, C. Davis, J. G. L. Mullins et al., “Claudin association with CD81 defines hepatitis C virus entry,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 285, no. 27, pp. 21092–21102, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. A. K. Schwarz, J. Grove, K. Hu, C. J. Mee, P. Balfe, and J. A. McKeating, “Hepatoma cell density promotes claudin-1 and scavenger receptor BI expression and hepatitis C virus internalization,” Journal of Virology, vol. 83, no. 23, pp. 12407–12414, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. E. Blanchard, S. Belouzard, L. Goueslain et al., “Hepatitis C virus entry depends on clathrin-mediated endocytosis,” Journal of Virology, vol. 80, no. 14, pp. 6964–6972, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. A. Codran, C. Royer, D. Jaeck et al., “Entry of hepatitis C virus pseudotypes into primary human hepatocytes by clathrin-dependent endocytosis,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 87, no. 9, pp. 2583–2593, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. D. Lavillette, B. Bartosch, D. Nourrisson et al., “Hepatitis C virus glycoproteins mediate low pH-dependent membrane fusion with liposomes,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 281, no. 7, pp. 3909–3917, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. D. M. Tscherne, C. T. Jones, M. J. Evans, B. D. Lindenbach, J. A. McKeating, and C. M. Rice, “Time- and temperature-dependent activation of hepatitis C virus for low-pH-triggered entry,” Journal of Virology, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 1734–1741, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. S. E. VanCompernolle, A. V. Wiznycia, J. R. Rush, M. Dhanasekaran, P. W. Baures, and S. C. Todd, “Small molecule inhibition of hepatitis C virus E2 binding to CD81,” Virology, vol. 314, no. 1, pp. 371–380, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. P. Meuleman, J. Hesselgesser, M. Paulson et al., “Anti-CD81 antibodies can prevent a hepatitis C virus infection in vivo,” Hepatology, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1761–1768, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. M. T. Catanese, R. Graziani, T. Von Hahn et al., “High-avidity monoclonal antibodies against the human scavenger class B type I receptor efficiently block hepatitis C virus infection in the presence of high-density lipoprotein,” Journal of Virology, vol. 81, no. 15, pp. 8063–8071, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. A. J. Syder, H. Lee, M. B. Zeisel et al., “Small molecule scavenger receptor BI antagonists are potent HCV entry inhibitors,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 48–55, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. P. Meuleman, M. T. Catanese, L. Verhoye et al., “A human monoclonal antibody targeting scavenger receptor class B type I precludes hepatitis C virus infection and viral spread in vitro and in vivo,” Hepatology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 364–372, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  116. I. Fofana, S. E. Krieger, F. Grunert et al., “Monoclonal anti-claudin 1 antibodies prevent hepatitis C virus infection of primary human hepatocytes,” Gastroenterology, vol. 139, no. 3, pp. 953.e4–964.e4, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. T. Matsumura, Z. Hu, T. Kato et al., “Amphipathic DNA polymers inhibit hepatitis C virus infection by blocking viral entry,” Gastroenterology, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 673–681, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus