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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 132765, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/132765
Research Article

Muramyl Dipeptide Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption through Increased RANKL Expression in Stromal Cells

1Division of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Department of Translational Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, 4-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575, Japan
2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, 4-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575, Japan

Received 12 October 2014; Revised 25 December 2014; Accepted 8 January 2015

Academic Editor: Giacomina Brunetti

Copyright © 2015 Masahiko Ishida et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

How to Cite this Article

Masahiko Ishida, Hideki Kitaura, Keisuke Kimura, et al., “Muramyl Dipeptide Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption through Increased RANKL Expression in Stromal Cells,” Journal of Immunology Research, vol. 2015, Article ID 132765, 12 pages, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/132765.