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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 281287, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/281287
Review Article

Osteoimmunology: Major and Costimulatory Pathway Expression Associated with Chronic Inflammatory Induced Bone Loss

1Discipline of Anatomy and Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 17 October 2014; Accepted 10 December 2014

Academic Editor: Giorgio Mori

Copyright © 2015 Tania N. Crotti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The field of osteoimmunology has emerged in response to the range of evidences demonstrating the close interrelationship between the immune system and bone metabolism. This is pertinent to immune-mediated diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease, where there are chronic inflammation and local bone erosion. Periprosthetic osteolysis is another example of chronic inflammation with associated osteolysis. This may also involve immune mediation when occurring in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Similarities in the regulation and mechanisms of bone loss are likely to be related to the inflammatory cytokines expressed in these diseases. This review highlights the role of immune-related factors influencing bone loss particularly in diseases of chronic inflammation where there is associated localized bone loss. The importance of the balance of the RANKL-RANK-OPG axis is discussed as well as the more recently appreciated role that receptors and adaptor proteins involved in the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) signaling pathway play. Although animal models are briefly discussed, the focus of this review is on the expression of ITAM associated molecules in relation to inflammation induced localized bone loss in RA, chronic periodontitis, and periprosthetic osteolysis, with an emphasis on the soluble and membrane bound factor osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR).