Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 931574, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/931574
Review Article

Intestinal Microbiota as Modulators of the Immune System and Neuroimmune System: Impact on the Host Health and Homeostasis

1Department of Biology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, 36036-900 Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil
2Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Governador Valadares, Brazil
3Department of Immunology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
4Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Governador Valadares, Brazil
5Department of Clinical Dentistry, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Brazil
6Department of Parasitology, Microbiology and Immunology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Brazil
7Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Governador Valadares, Brazil

Received 18 July 2014; Revised 6 November 2014; Accepted 7 November 2014

Academic Editor: Miguel Gueimonde

Copyright © 2015 Carlos Magno da Costa Maranduba et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Many immune-based intestinal disorders, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, as well as other illnesses, may have the intestines as an initial cause or aggravator in the development of diseases, even apparently not correlating directly to the intestine. Diabetes, obesity, multiple sclerosis, depression, and anxiety are examples of other illnesses discussed in the literature. In parallel, importance of the gut microbiota in intestinal homeostasis and immunologic conflict between tolerance towards commensal microorganisms and combat of pathogens is well known. Recent researches show that the immune system, when altered by the gut microbiota, influences the state in which these diseases are presented in the patient directly and indirectly. At the present moment, a considerable number of investigations about this subject have been performed and published. However, due to difficulties on correlating information, several speculations and hypotheses are generated. Thus, the present review aims at bringing together how these interactions work—gut microbiota, immune system, and their influence in the neuroimmune system.