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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 8417190, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8417190
Research Article

Upregulation of Soluble HLA-G in Chronic Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction

1Department of Cardiology, Zealand University Hospital (Roskilde), 10 Sygehusvej, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Centre for Immune Regulation and Reproductive Immunology (CIRRI), Zealand University Hospital (Roskilde) and Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, 10 Sygehusvej, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark

Received 19 May 2016; Revised 20 July 2016; Accepted 25 August 2016

Academic Editor: Enrico Fainardi

Copyright © 2016 Line Lisbeth Olesen and Thomas Vauvert F. Hviid. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) defined by ejection fraction (EF) <40% is common, serious but treatable, and correct diagnosis is the cornerstone of effective treatment. Biomarkers may help to diagnose LVSD and give insight into the pathophysiology. The immune system is activated in LVSD, and the immunomodulatory molecule human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) may be involved. The primary aim was to measure soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) in the blood in different stages of LVSD (<30% and 30–40%), in the midrange EF 40–50%, and in preserved EF ≥ 50% and to validate sHLA-G as a LVSD biomarker. The secondary aim was to examine associations between HLA-G gene polymorphisms influencing expression levels and LVSD. The 260 study participants were ≥75 years old, many with risk factors for heart disease or with known heart disease. Soluble HLA-G was significantly and uniformly higher in the groups with EF < 50% (<30, 30–40, and 40–50%) compared to EF > 50% (). N-terminal fragment-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and uric acid values were inversely related to EF. According to Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves NT-proBNP outperformed both sHLA-G and uric acid as biomarkers of LVSD. Soluble HLA-G in blood plasma was elevated in LVSD regardless of EF. A novel finding was that a combined 14 bp ins-del/+3142 SNP HLA-G haplotype was associated with EF < 40%.