Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 5140679, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5140679
Review Article

Thrombosis, Neuroinflammation, and Poststroke Infection: The Multifaceted Role of Neutrophils in Stroke

1Department of Neurology, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
2Department of Neurology, Carl-Thiem-Klinikum, Cottbus, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Antje Vogelgesang; ed.dlawsfierg-inu@gnaseglegov.ejtna

Received 14 December 2016; Revised 8 February 2017; Accepted 9 February 2017; Published 26 February 2017

Academic Editor: Carlos Rosales

Copyright © 2017 Johanna Ruhnau et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Immune cells can significantly predict and affect the clinical outcome of stroke. In particular, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was shown to predict hemorrhagic transformation and the clinical outcome of stroke; however, the immunological mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. Neutrophils are the first cells to invade injured tissue following focal brain ischemia. In these conditions, their proinflammatory properties enhance tissue damage and may promote ischemic incidences by inducing thrombus formation. Therefore, they constitute a potential target for therapeutic approaches and prevention of stroke. Indeed, in animal models of focal brain ischemia, neutrophils have been targeted with successful results. However, even in brain lesions, neutrophils also exert beneficial effects, because they are involved in triggering immunological removal of cell debris. Furthermore, intact neutrophil function is essential for maintaining immunological defense against bacterial infections. Several studies have demonstrated that stroke-derived neutrophils displayed impaired bacterial defense capacity. Because infections are known to impair the clinical course of stroke, therapeutic interventions that target neutrophils should preserve or even restore their function outside the central nervous system (CNS). This complex situation requires well-tailored therapeutic approaches that can effectively tackle immune cell invasion in the brain but avoid increasing poststroke infections.