The article titled “Dendritic Cells and Leishmania Infection: Adding Layers of Complexity to a Complex Disease” [1] was found to contain material from published work without citation, as follows: (i)Dong Liu and Jude E. Uzonna, “Macrophages and dendritic cells and its influence on the host immune response,” Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 2:83, 2012: (a)In the paragraph beginning with “Several reports show…”(b)In the paragraphs beginning with “Early studies demonstrated…where they present parasite-derived antigen to T cells,” “The production of IL-12 by APCs … downregulate IL-12p40 production in response to L. major infection,” “Baldwin et al. found…infected C57BL/6 mice,” and “It is not clear whether…protective or pathogenic T cell responses.”(c)In the paragraph beginning with “DCs express a wide variety…immunity against leishmaniasis.”(d)In the paragraphs beginning with “Given the fact that…multi-species/strain comparison” and “A more comprehensive…activation of the adaptive immune system.”(ii)Olga Brandonisio, Rosa Spinelli, and Maria Pepe: “Dendritic cells in Leishmania infection,” Microbes and Infection, vol. 6, Issue 15, pp. 1402–1409, December 2004, (a)In the paragraph beginning with “Dendritic cells (DCs) are a family of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs)…a wide range of microbial stimuli.”(iii)Von Stebut, “Cutaneous Leishmania infection: progress in pathogenesis research and experimental therapy,” Experimental Dermatology, 16: 340–346, 2007, (a)In the sentence beginning with “Infection with Leishmania parasites…after the infection is healed” and in the paragraph beginning with “Current paradigms…activation and killing of parasites.”(iv)Rafael de Freitas e Silva, Maria Carolina Accioly Brelaz de Castro, Antônio Mauro Rezende, and Valéria Rêgo Alves Pereira, “Targeting dendritic cells as a good alternative to combat Leishmania spp.,” Frontiers in Immunology, 26 November 2014, (a)In the paragraph beginning with “Nowadays, different in silico approaches…one or all Leishmania species that cause CL.”

The first author Daniel Feijó apologizes for these errors.