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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2018, Article ID 9480497, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9480497
Review Article

Viruses Seen by Our Cells: The Role of Viral RNA Sensors

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 35, 123 Muscat, Oman
2Centre de Recherche du CHUM (CRCHUM) et Faculté de Médecine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada

Correspondence should be addressed to Elias A. Said; moc.liamg@dias.saile, Ali A. Al-Jabri; mo.ude.uqs@irbajlaa, and Daniel Lamarre; ac.laertnomu@erramal.leinad

Received 23 November 2017; Revised 20 February 2018; Accepted 13 March 2018; Published 30 April 2018

Academic Editor: Mario Clerici

Copyright © 2018 Elias A. Said et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The role of the innate immune response in detecting RNA viruses is crucial for the establishment of proper inflammatory and antiviral responses. Different receptors, known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), are present in the cytoplasm, endosomes, and on the cellular surface. These receptors have the capacity to sense the presence of viral nucleic acids as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). This recognition leads to the induction of type 1 interferons (IFNs) as well as inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In this review, we provide an overview of the significant involvement of cellular RNA helicases and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3, 7, and 8 in antiviral immune defenses.