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Journal of Lipids
Volume 2011, Article ID 575840, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/575840
Review Article

Lipid Abnormalities and Cardiometabolic Risk in Patients with Overt and Subclinical Thyroid Disease

1Endocrine Unit, Second Department of Internal Medicine-Propaedeutic, Research Institute and Diabetes Center, Athens University Medical School, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece
2Second Department of Internal Medicine-Propaedeutic, Research Institute and Diabetes Center, Athens University Medical School, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece

Received 3 May 2011; Revised 17 May 2011; Accepted 17 May 2011

Academic Editor: Angeliki Chroni

Copyright © 2011 Melpomeni Peppa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Dyslipidemia is a common finding in patients with thyroid disease, explained by the adverse effects of thyroid hormones in almost all steps of lipid metabolism. Not only overt but also subclinical hypo- and hyperthyroidism, through different mechanisms, are associated with lipid alterations, mainly concerning total and LDL cholesterol and less often HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein A1, and apolipoprotein B. In addition to quantitative, qualitative alterations of lipids have been also reported, including atherogenic and oxidized LDL and HDL particles. In thyroid disease, dyslipidemia coexists with various metabolic abnormalities and induce insulin resistance and oxidative stress via a vice-vicious cycle. The above associations in combination with the thyroid hormone induced hemodynamic alterations, might explain the increased risk of coronary artery disease, cerebral ischemia risk, and angina pectoris in older, and possibly ischemic stroke in younger patients with overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism.