Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Lipids
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 365798, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/365798
Review Article

Fatty Acid Oxidation and Cardiovascular Risk during Menopause: A Mitochondrial Connection?

1CNC—Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra, Portugal
2Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra, Portugal
3Department of Internal Medicine and Public Medicine, Clinica Medica “A. Murri”, University of Bari Medical School, 70124 Bari, Italy

Received 15 August 2011; Accepted 17 October 2011

Academic Editor: B. A. Neuschwander-Tetri

Copyright © 2012 Paulo J. Oliveira et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. M. Gordon, S. Hurwitz, C. L. Shapiro, and M. S. Leboff, “Premature ovarian failure and body composition changes with adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer,” Menopause, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 1244–1248, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  2. M. Shozu, K. Murakami, and M. Inoue, “Aromatase and leiomyoma of the uterus,” Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 51–60, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  3. A. E. Schindler, “Dienogest in long-term treatment of endometriosis,” International Journal of Women's Health, vol. 3, pp. 175–184, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  4. D. Kaleta, B. Usidame, and K. Polańska, “Tobacco advertisements targeted on women: creating an awareness among women,” Central European Journal of Public Health, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 73–78, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  5. J. C. Stevenson, “A woman's journey through the reproductive, transitional and postmenopausal periods of life: impact on cardiovascular and musculo-skeletal risk and the role of estrogen replacement,” Maturitas, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 197–205, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  6. F. Kronenberg, “Menopausal hot flashes: a review of physiology and biosociocultural perspective on methods of assessment,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 140, no. 7, pp. 1380S–1385S, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  7. R. Green and N. Santoro, “Menopausal symptoms and ethnicity: the study of Women's Health Across the Nation,” Women's Health, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 127–133, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  8. H. D. Nelson, “Menopause,” The Lancet, vol. 371, no. 9614, pp. 760–770, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  9. S. L. Dormire, “The potential role of glucose transport changes in hot flash physiology: a hypothesis,” Biological Research for Nursing, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 241–247, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  10. M. Panjari and S. R. Davis, “Vaginal DHEA to treat menopause related atrophy: a review of the evidence,” Maturitas, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 22–25, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  11. B. Frenkel, A. Hong, S. K. Baniwal et al., “Regulation of adult bone turnover by sex steroids,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 224, no. 2, pp. 305–310, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. P. Babaei, R. Mehdizadeh, M. M. Ansar, and A. Damirchi, “Effects of ovariectomy and estrogen replacement therapy on visceral adipose tissue and serum adiponectin levels in rats,” Menopause International, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 100–104, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. S. L. Palin, P. G. McTernan, L. A. Anderson, D. W. Sturdee, A. H. Barnett, and S. Kumar, “17β-Estradiol and anti-estrogen ICI: compound 182,780 regulate expression of lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in isolated subcutaneous abdominal adipocytes,” Metabolism, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 383–388, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  14. H. Szafran and W. Smielak-Korombel, “The role of estrogens in hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism in women,” Przeglaąd lekarski, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 266–270, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Yoshida, K. Takahashi, H. Yamatani, K. Takata, and H. Kurachi, “Impact of surgical menopause on lipid and bone metabolism,” Climacteric, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 445–452, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  16. C. Vassalle, A. Mercuri, and S. Maffei, “Oxidative status and cardiovascular risk in women: keeping pink at heart,” World Journal of Cardiology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 26–30, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  17. I. M. Fearon and S. P. Faux, “Oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease: novel tools give (free) radical insight,” Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 748–381, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  18. K. Tolfrey, “American Heart Association guidelines for preventing heart disease in women: 2007 Update,” Physician and Sportsmedicine, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 162–164, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. “Third report of the national cholesterol education program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report,” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 25, pp. 3143–3421, 2002.
  20. L. Mosca, S. M. Grundy, D. Judelson et al., “AHA/ACC scientific statement: consensus panel statement. Guide to preventive cardiology for women. American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology,” Journal of American College of Cardiology, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1751–1755, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  21. L. Mosca, S. M. Grundy, D. Judelson et al., “Guide to preventive cardiology for women. AHA/ACC scientific statement consensus panel statement,” Circulation, vol. 99, no. 18, pp. 2480–2484, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  22. L. Mosca, H. Mochari-Greenberger, R. J. Dolor, L. K. Newby, and K. J. Robb, “Twelve-year follow-up of American women's awareness of cardiovascular disease risk and barriers to heart health,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 120–127, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. H. Tunstall-Pedoe, “Myth and paradox of coronary risk and the menopause,” Lancet, vol. 351, no. 9113, pp. 1425–1427, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. J. Lerner and W. B. Kannel, “Patterns of coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality in the sexes: a 26-year follow-up of the Framingham population,” American Heart Journal, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 383–390, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. M. Rosano, C. Vitale, G. Marazzi, and M. Volterrani, “Menopause and cardiovascular disease: the evidence,” Climacteric, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 19–24, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. J. F. Reckelhoff and C. Maric, “Editorial: sex and gender differences in cardiovascular-renal physiology and pathophysiology,” Steroids, vol. 75, no. 11, pp. 745–746, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. V. Bittner, “Menopause, age, and cardiovascular risk: a complex relationship,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 54, no. 25, pp. 2374–2375, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. E. S. Kim and V. Menon, “Status of women in cardiovascular clinical trials,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 279–283, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  29. M. Coylewright, J. F. Reckelhoff, and P. Ouyang, “Menopause and hypertension: an age-old debate,” Hypertension, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 952–959, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. S. M. Grundy, “Guidelines for cholesterol management: recommendations of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel II,” Heart Disease and Stroke, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 123–127, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. S. Hong, S. W. Yi, H. C. Kang et al., “Age at menopause and cause-specific mortality in South Korean women: kangwha Cohort Study,” Maturitas, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 411–419, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. F. B. Hu, F. Grodstein, C. H. Hennekens et al., “Age at natural menopause and risk of cardiovascular disease,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, no. 10, pp. 1061–1066, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. B. L. Haddock, H. P. Hopp Marshak, J. J. Mason, and G. Blix, “The effect of hormone replacement therapy and exercise on cardiovascular disease risk factors in postmenopausal women,” Sports Medicine, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 39–49, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. K. A. Matthews, S. L. Crawford, C. U. Chae et al., “Are changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors in midlife women due to chronological aging or to the menopausal transition?” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 54, no. 25, pp. 2366–2373, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  35. E. Barrett-Connor, “Sex differences in coronary heart disease: why are women so superior? The 1995 Ancel Keys Lecture,” Circulation, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 252–264, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. H. S. Kok, K. M. van Asselt, Y. T. van der Schouw et al., “Heart disease risk determines menopausal age rather than the reverse,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 1976–1983, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  37. L. Mosca, C. L. Banka, E. J. Benjamin et al., “Evidence-based guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention in women: 2007 Update,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 1230–1250, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  38. C. Vassalle, L. Petrozzi, N. Botto, M. G. Andreassi, and G. C. Zucchelli, “Oxidative stress and its association with coronary artery disease and different atherogenic risk factors,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 256, no. 4, pp. 308–315, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  39. E. Schwedhelm, A. Bartling, H. Lenzen et al., “Urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2 α as a risk marker in patients with coronary heart disease: a matched case-control study,” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 7, pp. 843–848, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  40. L. Baker, K. K. Meldrum, M. Wang et al., “The role of estrogen in cardiovascular disease,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 325–344, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. O. C. Gebara, M. A. Mittleman, P. Sutherland et al., “Association between increased estrogen status and increased fibrinolytic potential in the Framingham Offspring Study,” Circulation, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 1952–1958, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. G. A. Colditz, W. C. Willett, M. J. Stampfer et al., “Menopause and the risk of coronary heart disease in women,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 316, no. 18, pp. 1105–1110, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  43. W. J. Mack, C. C. Slater, M. Xiang, D. Shoupe, R. A. Lobo, and H. N. Hodis, “Elevated subclinical atherosclerosis associated with oophorectomy is related to time since menopause rather than type of menopause,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 391–397, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  44. A. M. Shearman, L. A. Cupples, S. Demissie et al., “Association between estrogen receptor α gene variation and cardiovascular disease,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 290, no. 17, pp. 2263–2270, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  45. F. Grodstein, M. J. Stampfer, J. E. Manson et al., “Postmenopausal estrogen and progestin use and the risk of cardiovascular disease,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 335, no. 7, pp. 453–461, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. D. Grady, S. M. Rubin, D. B. Petitti et al., “Hormone therapy to prevent disease and prolong life in postmenopausal women,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 117, no. 12, pp. 1016–1037, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. T. W. Meade and A. Berra, “Hormone replacement therapy and cardiovascular disease,” British Medical Bulletin, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 276–308, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. K. M. Randell, R. J. Honkanen, H. Kröger, and S. Saarikoski, “Does hormone-replacement therapy prevent fractures in early postmenopausal women?” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 528–533, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. B. Ettinger, D. M. Black, B. H. Mitlak et al., “Reduction of vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with raloxifene: results from a 3-year randomized clinical trial. Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) investigators,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 282, no. 7, pp. 637–645, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  50. B. E. Henderson, A. Paganini-Hill, and R. K. Ross, “Decreased mortality in users of estrogen replacement therapy,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 75–78, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. T. L. Bush, E. Barrett-Connor, L. D. Cowan et al., “Cardiovascular mortality and noncontraceptive use of estrogen in women: results from the Lipid Research Clinics Program Follow-up Study,” Circulation, vol. 75, no. 6, pp. 1102–1109, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  52. T. L. Bush, L. D. Cowan, E. Barrett Connor et al., “Estrogen use and all-cause mortality. Preliminary results from the Lipid Research Clinics Program Follow-up study,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 249, no. 7, pp. 903–906, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. C. Schairer, J. Lubin, R. Troisi, S. Sturgeon, L. Brinton, and R. Hoover, “Menopausal estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy and breast cancer risk,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 283, no. 4, pp. 485–491, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. L. Bergkvist, H. O. Adami, I. Persson, R. Hoover, and C. Schairer, “The risk of breast cancer after estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 321, no. 5, pp. 293–297, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. E. Rossouw, G. L. Anderson, R. L. Prentice et al., “Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the women's health initiative randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 288, no. 3, pp. 321–333, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. G. L. Anderson, M. Limacher, A. R. Assaf et al., “Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 291, no. 14, pp. 1701–1712, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  57. A. L. Hersh, M. L. Stefanick, and R. S. Stafford, “National use of postmenopausal hormone therapy: annual trends and response to recent evidence,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 291, no. 1, pp. 47–53, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  58. J. E. Rossouw, R. L. Prentice, J. E. Manson et al., “Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease by age and years since menopause,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 297, no. 13, pp. 1465–1477, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  59. S. M. Harman, E. Vittinghoff, E. A. Brinton et al., “Timing and duration of menopausal hormone treatment may affect cardiovascular outcomes,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 199–205, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  60. L. Mosca, E. J. Benjamin, K. Berra et al., “Effectiveness-based guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in women-2011 update: a Guideline from the American Heart Association,” Circulation, vol. 123, no. 11, pp. 1243–1262, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  61. M. Pierdominici, E. Ortona, F. Franconi, M. Caprio, E. Straface, and W. Malorni, “Gender specific aspects of cell death in the cardiovascular system,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1046–1055, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  62. A. M. Deschamps, E. Murphy, and J. Sun, “Estrogen receptor activation and cardioprotection in ischemia reperfusion injury,” Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 73–78, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  63. J. S. Juggi, L. J. Hoteit, F. A. Babiker, S. Joseph, and A. S. Mustafa, “Protective role of normothermic, hyperthermic and estrogen preconditioning and pretreatment on tumour necrosis factor-α-induced damage,” Experimental and Clinical Cardiology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. e5–e10, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  64. S. Kanki, V. F. Segers, W. Wu et al., “Stromal cell-derived factor-1 retention and cardioprotection for ischemic myocardium,” Circulation, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 509–518, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  65. C. Huang, H. Gu, Y. Wang, and M. Wang, “Estrogen-induced SDF-1 production is mediated by estrogen receptor-α in female hearts after acute ischemia and reperfusion,” Surgery, vol. 150, no. 2, pp. 197–203, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  66. J. Cao, T. Zhu, L. Lu et al., “Estrogen induces cardioprotection in male C57BL/6J mice after acute myocardial infarction via decreased activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and increased Akt-Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic signaling,” International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 231–237, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  67. L. F. Valverdea, F. D. Cedillob, M. L. Ramosa, E. G. Cerveraa, K. Quijanoa, and J. Cordobaa, “Changes induced by estradiol-ethylenediamine derivative on perfusion pressure and coronary resistance in isolated rat heart: l-type calcium channel,” Biomedical Papers, vol. 155, no. 1, pp. 27–32, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. X. Hu, X. Xu, Z. Lu et al., “AMP activated protein kinase-α2 regulates expression of estrogen-related receptor-α, a metabolic transcription factor related to heart failure development,” Hypertension, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 696–703, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  69. M. S. Mitra, J. D. Schilling, X. Wang et al., “Cardiac lipin 1 expression is regulated by the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator 1α/estrogen related receptor axis,” Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 120–128, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  70. D. E. Masood, E. C. Roach, K. G. Beauregard, and R. A. Khalil, “Impact of sex hormone metabolism on the vascular effects of menopausal hormone therapy in cardiovascular disease,” Current Drug Metabolism, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 693–714, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. P. A. Arias-Loza, K. Hu, S. Frantz et al., “Medroxyprogesterone acetate aggravates oxidative stress and left ventricular dysfunction in rats with chronic myocardial infarction,” Toxicologic Pathology, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 867–878, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  72. G. D. Lopaschuk, J. R. Ussher, C. D. Folmes, J. S. Jaswal, and W. C. Stanley, “Myocardial fatty acid metabolism in health and disease,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 207–258, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  73. R. M. Beadle and M. Frenneaux, “Modification of myocardial substrate utilisation: a new therapeutic paradigm in cardiovascular disease,” Heart, vol. 96, no. 11, pp. 824–830, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  74. J. Kerner and C. Hoppel, “Fatty acid import into mitochondria,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1486, no. 1, pp. 1–17, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. Y. G. Niu and R. D. Evans, “Very-low-density lipoprotein: complex particles in cardiac energy metabolism,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 2011, Article ID 189876, 9 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  76. Y. G. Niu, D. Hauton, and R. D. Evans, “Utilization of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins by the working rat heart: routes of uptake and metabolic fates,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 558, no. 1, pp. 225–237, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  77. M. F. Oliver, “Control of free fatty acids during acute myocardial ischaemia,” Heart, vol. 96, no. 23, pp. 1883–1884, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  78. A. Barsotti, A. Giannoni, P. di Napoli, and M. Emdin, “Energy metabolism in the normal and in the diabetic heart,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 836–840, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. G. J. van der Vusse, M. van Bilsen, J. F. Glatz, D. M. Hasselbaink, and J. J. Luiken, “Critical steps in cellular fatty acid uptake and utilization,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 239, no. 1-2, pp. 9–15, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J. F. Glatz, J. J. Luiken, and A. Bonen, “Involvement of membrane-associated proteins in the acute regulation of cellular fatty acid uptake,” Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, vol. 16, no. 2-3, pp. 123–132, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  81. J. F. Glatz, J. J. Luiken, F. A. van Nieuwenhoven, and G. J. van der Vusse, “Molecular mechanism of cellular uptake and intracellular translocation of fatty acids,” Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 3–9, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. A. T. Turer, C. R. Malloy, C. B. Newgard, and M. V. Podgoreanu, “Energetics and metabolism in the failing heart: important but poorly understood,” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 458–465, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  83. M. E. Young, G. W. Goodwin, J. Ying et al., “Regulation of cardiac and skeletal muscle malonyl-CoA decarboxylase by fatty acids,” American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 280, no. 3, pp. E471–E479, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  84. S. Eaton, “Control of mitochondrial β-oxidation flux,” Progress in Lipid Research, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 197–239, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. S. Grimbert, C. Fisch, D. Deschamps et al., “Effects of female sex hormones on mitochondria: possible role in acute fatty liver of pregnancy,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 268, no. 1, pp. G107–G115, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. R. Sladek, J. A. Bader, and V. Giguère, “The orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor or α is a transcriptional regulator of the human medium-cha n Acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase gene,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 5400–5409, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. L. O. Li, E. L. Klett, and R. A. Coleman, “Acyl-CoA synthesis, lipid metabolism and lipotoxicity,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1801, no. 3, pp. 246–251, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  88. N. A. van Herpen and V. B. Schrauwen-Hinderling, “Lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissue and lipotoxicity,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 231–241, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  89. L. S. Szczepaniak, R. G. Victor, L. Orci, and R. H. Unger, “Forgotten but not gone: the rediscovery of fatty heart, the most common unrecognized disease in America,” Circulation Research, vol. 101, no. 8, pp. 759–767, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  90. N. M. Borradaile and J. E. Schaffer, “Lipotoxicity in the heart,” Current Hypertension Reports, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 412–417, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. L. Zhang, J. R. Ussher, T. Oka, V. J. Cadete, C. Wagg, and G. D. Lopaschuk, “Cardiac diacylglycerol accumulation in high fat-fed mice is associated with impaired insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 148–156, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  92. I. Chowdhury, A. Branch, M. Olatinwo, K. Thomas, R. Matthews, and W. E. Thompson, “Prohibitin (PHB) acts as a potent survival factor against ceramide induced apoptosis in rat granulosa cells,” Life Sciences, vol. 89, no. 9-10, pp. 295–303, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  93. T. D. Mullen and L. M. Obeid, “Ceramide and apoptosis: exploring the enigmatic connections between sphingolipid metabolism and programmed cell death,” Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. In press.
  94. H. Lee, J. A. Rotolo, J. Mesicek et al., “Mitochondrial ceramide-rich macrodomains functionalize bax upon irradiation,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 6, article e19783, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  95. E. Usta, M. Mustafi, F. Artunc et al., “The challenge to verify ceramide's role of apoptosis induction in human cardiomyocytes—a pilot study,” Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, vol. 6, no. 1, article 38, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  96. S. A. Novgorodov, Z. M. Szulc, C. Luberto et al., “Positively charged ceramide is a potent inducer of mitochondrial permeabilization,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 280, no. 16, pp. 16096–16105, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  97. M. di Paola, P. Zaccagnino, G. Montedoro, T. Cocco, and M. Lorusso, “Ceramide induces release of pro-apoptotic proteins from mitochondria by either a Ca2+-dependent or a Ca2+-independent mechanism,” Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 165–170, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. K. W. Kinnally, P. M. Peixoto, S.-Y. Ryu, and L. M. Dejean, “Is mPTP the gatekeeper for necrosis, apoptosis, or both?” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1813, no. 4, pp. 616–622, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  99. S. A. Novgorodov, T. I. Gudz, and L. M. Obeid, “Long-chain ceramide is a potent inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 283, no. 36, pp. 24707–24717, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  100. M. A. Cole, A. J. Murray, L. E. Cochlin et al., “A high fat diet increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and uncoupling to decrease efficiency in rat heart,” Basic Research in Cardiology, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 447–457, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  101. N. Li, J. Wang, F. Gao, Y. Tian, R. Song, and S.-J. Zhu, “The role of uncoupling protein 2 in the apoptosis induced by free fatty acid in rat cardiomyocytes,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 161–167, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  102. L. H. Opie and J. Knuuti, “The adrenergic-fatty acid load in heart failure,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 54, no. 18, pp. 1637–1646, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  103. J. S. Jaswal, W. Keung, W. Wang, J. R. Ussher, and G. D. Lopaschuk, “Targeting fatty acid and carbohydrate oxidation—a novel therapeutic intervention in the ischemic and failing heart,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1813, no. 7, pp. 1333–1350, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  104. M. J. Romero-Aleshire, M. K. Diamond-Stanic, A. H. Hasty, P. B. Hoyer, and H. L. Brooks, “Loss of ovarian function in the VCD mouse-model of menopause leads to insulin resistance and a rapid progression into the metabolic syndrome,” American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, vol. 297, no. 3, pp. R587–R592, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  105. F. Pansini, G. Bonaccorsi, F. Genovesi et al., “Influence of estrogens on serum free fatty acid levels in women,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 1387–1389, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  106. C. A. Derby, S. L. Crawford, R. C. Pasternak et al., “Lipid changes during the menopause transition in relation to age and weight: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 169, no. 11, pp. 1352–1361, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  107. M. L. Power and J. Schulkin, “Sex differences in fat storage, fat metabolism, and the health risks from obesity: possible evolutionary origins,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 931–940, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  108. T. M. D'Eon, S. C. Souza, M. Aronovitz, M. S. Obin, S. K. Fried, and A. S. Greenberg, “Estrogen regulation of adiposity and fuel partitioning: evidence of genomic and non-genomic regulation of lipogenic and oxidative pathways,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 280, no. 43, pp. 35983–35991, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  109. C. M. Williams, “Lipid metabolism in women,” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 153–160, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  110. A. K. Wong, J. Howie, J. R. Petrie, and C. C. Lang, “AMP-activated protein kinase pathway: a potential therapeutic target in cardiometabolic disease,” Clinical Science, vol. 116, no. 8, pp. 607–620, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  111. C.-M. Liou, A.-L. Yang, C.-H. Kuo, H. Tin, C.-Y. Huang, and S.-D. Lee, “Effects of 17β-estradiol on cardiac apoptosis in ovariectomized rats,” Cell Biochemistry and Function, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 521–528, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  112. S. D. Lee, W. W. Kuo, Y. J. Ho et al., “Cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in ovariectomized rats,” Maturitas, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 268–277, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  113. W.-C. Liang and I. Nishino, “State of the art in muscle lipid diseases,” Acta Myologica, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 351–356, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  114. M. J. Bennett, “Pathophysiology of fatty acid oxidation disorders,” Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 533–537, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. K. Begriche, J. Massart, M.-A. Robin, A. Borgne-Sanchez, and B. Fromenty, “Drug-induced toxicity on mitochondria and lipid metabolism: mechanistic diversity and deleterious consequences for the liver,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 773–794, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  116. J. A. Bjork, J. L. Butenhoff, and K. B. Wallace, “Multiplicity of nuclear receptor activation by PFOA and PFOS in primary human and rodent hepatocytes,” Toxicology, vol. 288, no. 1–3, pp. 8–17, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  117. E. Freneaux, G. Labbe, P. Letteron et al., “Inhibition of the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids by tetracycline in mice and in man: possible role in microvesicular steatosis induced by this antibiotic,” Hepatology, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 1056–1062, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. D. J. Glenn, F. Wang, M. Nishimoto et al., “A murine model of isolated cardiac steatosis leads to cardiomyopathy,” Hypertension, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 216–222, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  119. G. Petrosillo, M. Matera, N. Moro, F. M. Ruggiero, and G. Paradies, “Mitochondrial complex I dysfunction in rat heart with aging: critical role of reactive oxygen species and cardiolipin,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 88–94, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  120. E. J. Lesnefsky and C. L. Hoppel, “Cardiolipin as an oxidative target in cardiac mitochondria in the aged rat,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1777, no. 7-8, pp. 1020–1027, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  121. H. J. Lee, J. Mayette, S. I. Rapoport, and R. P. Bazinet, “Selective remodeling of cardiolipin fatty acids in the aged rat heart,” Lipids in Health and Disease, vol. 5, article 2, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  122. S. Judge, Y. M. Jang, A. Smith, T. Hagen, and C. Leeuwenburgh, “Age-associated increases in oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities in cardiac interfibrillar mitochondria: implications for the mitochondrial theory of aging,” FASEB Journal, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 419–421, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  123. S. W. Fannin, E. J. Lesnefsky, T. J. Slabe, M. O. Hassan, and C. L. Hoppel, “Aging selectively decreases oxidative capacity in rat heart interfibrillar mitochondria,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 372, no. 2, pp. 399–407, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  124. C. C. Preston, A. S. Oberlin, E. L. Holmuhamedov et al., “Aging-induced alterations in gene transcripts and functional activity of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes in the heart,” Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, vol. 129, no. 6, pp. 304–312, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  125. J. Marín-García, Y. Pi, and M. J. Goldenthal, “Mitochondrial-nuclear cross-talk in the aging and failing heart,” Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 477–491, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  126. S. A. Mohamed, T. Hanke, A. W. Erasmi et al., “Mitochondrial DNA deletions and the aging heart,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 508–517, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  127. M. R. Meyer, D. J. Clegg, E. R. Prossnitz, and M. Barton, “Obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes: sex differences and role of oestrogen receptors,” Acta Physiologica, vol. 203, no. 1, pp. 259–269, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  128. B. Niemann, Y. Chen, M. Teschner, L. Li, R.-E. Silber, and S. Rohrbach, “Obesity induces signs of premature cardiac aging in younger patients: the role of mitochondria,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 577–585, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  129. J. G. Duncan, “Mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1813, no. 7, pp. 1351–1359, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  130. P. J. Oliveira, “Cardiac mitochondrial alterations observed in hyperglycaemic rats—what can we learn from cell biology?” Current Diabetes Reviews, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 11–21, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. J. Suski, M. Lebiedzinska, N. G. Machado et al., “Mitochondrial tolerance to drugs and toxic agents in ageing and disease,” Current Drug Targets, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 827–849, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  132. V. A. Sardão, S. L. Pereira, and P. J. Oliveira, “Drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiac and skeletal muscle injury,” Expert Opinion on Drug Safety, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 129–146, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  133. A. Ascensão, J. Lumini-Oliveira, P. J. Oliveira, and J. Magalhães, “Mitochondria as a target for exercise-induced cardioprotection,” Current Drug Targets, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 860–871, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  134. J. Lumini-Oliveira, J. Magalhães, C. V. Pereira, A. C. Moreira, P. J. Oliveira, and A. Ascensão, “Endurance training reverts heart mitochondrial dysfunction, permeability transition and apoptotic signaling in long-term severe hyperglycemia,” Mitochondrion, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 54–63, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  135. M. L. Johnson, Z. Zarins, J. A. Fattor et al., “Twelve weeks of endurance training increases FFA mobilization and reesterification in postmenopausal women,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 109, no. 6, pp. 1573–1581, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  136. Z. A. Zarins, G. A. Wallis, N. Faghihnia et al., “Effects of endurance training on cardiorespiratory fitness and substrate partitioning in postmenopausal women,” Metabolism, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 1338–1346, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  137. A. M. Moustafa and V. Boshra, “The possible role of L-carnitine on the skeletal muscle of ovariectomized rats,” Journal of Molecular Histology, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 217–225, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  138. I. Baeza, J. Fdez-Tresguerres, C. Ariznavarreta, and M. De La Fuente, “Effects of growth hormone, melatonin, oestrogens and phytoestrogens on the oxidized glutathione (GSSG)/reduced glutathione (GSH) ratio and lipid peroxidation in aged ovariectomized rats,” Biogerontology, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 687–701, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  139. R. E. White, R. Gerrity, S. A. Barman, and G. Han, “Estrogen and oxidative stress: a novel mechanism that may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease in women,” Steroids, vol. 75, no. 11, pp. 788–793, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  140. J.-F. Arnal, P.-Y. Scarabin, F. Trémollières, H. Laurell, and P. Gourdy, “Estrogens in vascular biology and disease: where do we stand today?” Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 554–560, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  141. T. L. Zern, R. J. Wood, C. Greene et al., “Grape polyphenols exert a cardioprotective effect in pre- and postmenopausal women by lowering plasma lipids and reducing oxidative stress,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 135, no. 8, pp. 1911–1917, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. M. Sun, F. Qian, W. Shen et al., “Mitochondrial nutrients stimulate performance and mitochondrial biogenesis in exhaustively exercised rats,” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. In press.
  143. A. Biala, E. Tauriainen, A. Siltanen et al., “Resveratrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis and ameliorates Ang II-induced cardiac remodeling in transgenic rats harboring human renin and angiotensinogen genes,” Blood Pressure, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 196–205, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  144. G. Szabó, “A glass of red wine to improve mitochondrial biogenesis? Novel mechanisms of resveratrol,” American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 297, no. 1, pp. H8–H9, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed