Journal of Marine Sciences / 2011 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Reimaanlok: A National Framework for Conservation Area Planning in the Marshall Islands

Table 2

Conservation features and targets in the Marshall Islands.
(a) Coarse-scale conservation features and targets: Broad categorization of habitats and ecosystems that encompass all the biota of the Marshall Islands.

FeatureType I target subsistence onlyType II target
special reserve

Indigenous broadleaf forests20%10%
Deep lagoon30%0–5%
Lagoon pinnacles30–40%0–15%
Lagoon slope50%0–15%
Ocean leeward reef liklal 30–50%0–10%
Ocean Reef100%
Ocean windward reef30–50%0–10%
Reef flat30–50%0–10%
Reef pass and channel80–100%0–30%

(b) Fine-scale conservation features/special features. Important areas for species, rare or imperiled communities, places of cultural significance. These are features considered worthy of conservation consideration that are not adequately dealt with under the coarse-scale features above.

FeatureType I target subsistence onlyType II target
special reserve

Bird Island100%50%
Breadfruit forest100%0%
Climax forest communities: Pisonia grandis and Neisosperma oppositifolium kōjbar forests20%10%
Mangrove area , bulabol and kimeme 90%?
Pemphis acidula forest 100%50%
Pond pat 60–80%?
Shrubland and grassland100%50%
Turtle nesting beach100%100%
Windward forest 100%
Clam site50%30%
Fish spawning aggregation area (SPAG)100%NA
Point with extended ocean reef bōke ?
Reef hole nam 30%
Seagrass meadow100%

? indicates that these targets remained undetermined.
(c) Species conservation features.


Aquatic shrimp
Arno skink
Horticultural species bōb (Pandanus tectorius clones), iaraj (taro)
Land crabs , baru wan, barulep

Bristle-thighed curlew kuk-kuk/kewak
Great Frigatebird (f), ak (m)
Micronesian pigeon (including the Ratak subspecies) mule
Short-eared owl
Short-tailed albatross


Bigeye tuna bwebwe
Black-lipped pearl oyster di
Bumphead parrotfish mem
Cowries and other shells libuke
Fisheries target species
Game fishes
Giant clams
Giant grouper kidriej
Green sea turtle wōn/jebake (brown color)
Hawksbill turtle jebake
Lobster wōr
Manta ray
Napoleon wrasse lappo
Other turtles wōn
Rare coral species
Sea cucumber jibenben
Sharks bako
Spotted eagle ray imel
Three-banded anenome fish banij
Whale shark

Notes on Tables 2(a), 2(b), and 2(c). The values in Table 2(a) for coarse-scale conservation features are area based; thus, the % refers to a portion of the total area of that habitat type. The values in Table 2(b) for fine-scale conservation features are based on occurrences. That is the % refers to a portion of the total number of occurrences of the target. For example, if 200 climax forest communities in the Marshalls are identified, then 20 (10%) should be protected and another 20 managed for subsistence use only. A total of 40 areas (20%) should be under effective conservation. Often the fine-scale features are too small to easily map (consider a turtle nesting beach), and so the targets are set by occurrences rather than by area. Conservation targets are location and area based; therefore, there are no targets set for species conservation features (Table 2(c)). Some conservation features do not have targets associated with them due to uncertainty within the planning team about appropriate targets. It is expected that the importance of these conservation features and appropriate goals will be determined during atoll-level conservation planning processes.

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