Journal of Marine Sciences

Journal of Marine Sciences / 2012 / Article

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 2012 |Article ID 462407 |

D. Giordano, A. Profeta, L. Pirrera, F. Soraci, F. Perdichizzi, S. Greco, A. Perdichizzi, P. Rinelli, "On the Occurrence of the Blunthead Puffer, Sphoeroides pachygaster (Osteichthyes: Tetraodontidae), in the Strait of Messina (Central Mediterranean)", Journal of Marine Sciences, vol. 2012, Article ID 462407, 3 pages, 2012.

On the Occurrence of the Blunthead Puffer, Sphoeroides pachygaster (Osteichthyes: Tetraodontidae), in the Strait of Messina (Central Mediterranean)

Academic Editor: Robert A. Patzner
Received30 Mar 2012
Accepted10 May 2012
Published09 Aug 2012


The record of Sphoeroides pachygaster reveals the presence of the species in the Strait of Messina (Central Mediterranean Sea). The adult species was captured on 15 march 2012. It measured 280 mm of total length and weighed 461.5 g. Morphometric measurements (mm) and meristic counts were reported in this paper.

1. Introduction

The blunthead puffer Sphoeroides pachygaster (Müller & Troschel, 1848) is widely distributed in tropical and temperate waters on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean [1, 2]. The species was reported from New England to Southern Brazil [3], off the Eastern Atlantic in Irish Waters [4], in the Bay of Biscay [5, 6] and off Portugal [7]. S. pachygaster was frequently reported in the south of the Strait of Gibraltar, from Morocco, Senegal [8], to the Gulf of Guinea [1, 9].

The species is known in the Mediterranean [1012] where the northernmost extension range of the species was the Adriatic Sea [13]. In the Tunisian marine waters, the species was observed by Bradaï [14] and recently by Chérif et al. [15], where a substantial population seems to be at present definitively established. In the Italian Seas S. pachygaster was found in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea [16], Sicilian Channel [17], Ionian Sea [18], Adriatic Sea, and Northern Tyrrhenian Sea [13, 19].

Information available strongly supports the general opinion which considers S. pachygaster a recent immigrant, probably undergoing a fast diffusion eastwards [16, 17] even though Relini and Orsi Relini [20] speculated on the possibility of a previous presence of the species within the Mediterranean on the basis of old ichthyological illustrations.

The aim of this paper is to point out that the species is present in the area. With the present note, the blunthead puffer can now be added to the Strait of Messina fish check-list.

2. Material and Methods

On 15 March 2012 in the Strait of Messina (Sicily), one specimen of Sphoeroides pachygaster was caught by a fisherman (Figure 1). The specimen was weighted to the nearest gram and measured to the nearest millimetre. The morphometric measurement and meristic counts were performed according to Ragonese et al. [17].

The specimen was photographed and preserved in the ichthyological collection of the Institute for Marine Coastal Environmental (IAMC) of the National Council of Research (CNR) in Messina (Italy).

3. Results and Discussion

The first finding of Sphoeroides pachygaster in the Strait of Messina was an adult male that weighted 461.5 g (Figure 2). The morphometric measurement with percents of total length (% of TL) and meristic counts are shown in Table 1.


Morphometric measurementsmm% of TL

Total length (TL)280100,0
Standard length24587,5
Head length6523,2
Head width4516,1
Head height5419,3
Eye horizontal diameter196,8
Eye vertical diameter186,4
Interorbital space2810,0
Snout length3512,5
Postorbital length3010,7
Width of pedunculum3211,4
Width of gill opening248,6
Predorsal length207,1
Preanal length217,5
Dorsal fin length238,2
Dorsal fin base length103,6
Anal fin length248,6
Anal fin base length103,6
Pectoral fin length2910,4
Caudal fin length3612,9
Body thickness7025,0
Body height6723,9
Nostril greatest diameter62,1
Nostril lesser diameter 41,4
Internal space2810,0


Meristic counts

Dortsal fin rays8
Anal fin rays8
Pectoral fin rays14
Caudal fin rays10

Identification was made by skin completely smooth with total lack of scales, spines, and body plates; one lateral line on each side convoluted; body inflatable, with large head and snout rounded; with beak-like jaws with two large teeth on each jaw forming a dental plate with entire cutting edge (Figure 3); eyes big and oval with a flat interorbital space; dorsal fin single placed in front of the similar-shaped anal fin, pelvic fin absent and caudal fin truncated or slightly concave; colour greyish on dorsal surface with brownish spots; belly whitish pale grey; caudal fin base dark.

Morphology, colour, morphometric measurements, and meristic counts of this blunthead puffer agree with previous descriptions [3, 11, 12, 17, 21]. The number of alien fish species increased recently in the Black Sea-Mediterranean Basin because of the opening of the Suez Canal, climate change, and international shipping activities [22]. Introduction of Alien species to new ecosystem is considered to be a major threat to its biodiversity, structure, and function [23, 24]. More than 790 alien species have been introduced to the Mediterranean Sea, most of which are benthos and fish species [25]. Movements of species in relation with global warming may increase spatial overlapping between exotic and endemic species, which is a critical issue for the conservation of biodiversity. Marine biological invasions are becoming a reality with sometimes devastating effects [26]. At the same time, it is important to study the genotypic changes of new populations driven by natural selection through the interactions with indigenous populations and in response to the new abiotic environment. Records of the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic fish species from the Mediterranean areas increase continuously [27]. In particular in the Ionian Sea S. pachygaster, after its first occurrence in 1991, showed a significant increase with time and there is now a steady population [28].

This note provides information about a new discovery of Sphoeroides pachygaster. In this Mediterranean area all records and stranding due to upwelling phenomena (typical of the Straits of Messina) should be reported.


The authors wish to thank the Sicilian fisherman, La Fauci Giuseppe, who kindly provided the specimen of Sphoeroides pachygaster.


  1. R. L. Shipp, “Tetraodontidae,” in Check-List of the Fishes of the Eastern Tropical Atlantic, J. C. Quéro, J. C. H. Ureau, C. Karrer, A. Post, and L. Saldanha, Eds., UNESCO, Paris, France, 1990. View at: Google Scholar
  2. C. L. S. Sampaio, P. R. D. Lopes, and G. Olavo, “Registros de Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) e Sphoeroides testudineus (Muller & Troschel, 1848) (Actinopterygii: Tetraodontidae) para o litoral de Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil,” Interciencia, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 157–160, 2001. View at: Google Scholar
  3. D. Golani, L. Orsi-Relini, E. Massuti, and J. P. Quignard, CIESM Atlas of Exotic Species in the Mediterranean. Vol. 1 Fishes. (F. Briand editor), CIESM Publications, Monte Carlo, Monaco, 2002.
  4. A. Wheeler and M. J. P. Van Oijen, “The occurrence of Sphoeroides pachygaster (Osteichthyes-Tetraodontiformes) off North-West Ireland,” Zoologische Mededelingen, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 101–107, 1985. View at: Google Scholar
  5. J. C. Quéro, M. H. Du Buit, and J. J. Vayne, “Les observations de poissons tropicaux et le réchauffement des eaux dans l'Atlantique européen,” Oceanologica Acta, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 345–361, 1998. View at: Google Scholar
  6. J. C. Quéro, P. Porché, and J. J. Vayne, Guide des Poissons de l'Atlantique Européen. Les Guides du Naturaliste, Delachaux & Niestlé, Paris, France, 2003.
  7. M. R. Albuquerque, “Peixes de Portugal,” Portugaliae Acta Biologica, vol. 5, pp. 1–1164, 1954–1956. View at: Google Scholar
  8. B. Séret and P. Opic, Poissons de Mer de l'Ouest Africain Tropical, Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d'Outre-Mer (ORSTOM), Paris, France, 1981.
  9. J. Blache, J. Cadenat, and A. Stauch, Clés de détermination des poissons de mer signalés dans l'Atlantique oriental entre le 20 parallèle nord et le 15 parallèle sud. Faune Tropicale XVIII, Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d'Outre-Mer (ORSTOM), Paris, France, 1970.
  10. P. Peristeraki, G. Lazarakis, M. Skarvelis, M. Georgiadis, and G. Tserpes, “Additional records on the occurrence of alien fish species in the eastern Mediterranean Sea,” Mediterranean Marine Science, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 61–66, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  11. P. N. Psomadakis, P. Ceddia, and M. Vacchi, “Additional records of Sphoeroides pachygaster (Pisces, Tetraodontidae) in the Tyrrhenian sea and notes on the distributions of the species in the Mediterranean,” JMBA2 Biodiversity Records, vol. 1, Article ID e18, 2008. View at: Google Scholar
  12. F. Hemida, M. M. Ben Amor, and C. Capapé, “First confirmed record of the blunthead puffer, Sphoeroides pachygaster (Osteichthyes: Tetraodontidae) off the Algerian coast (south-western Mediterranean),” Pan-American Journal of Aquatic Sciences, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 188–192, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  13. J. Dulčić, “Northernmost occurrence of Sphoeroides pachygaster (Tetraodontidae) in the Adriatic Sea,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 133–139, 2002. View at: Google Scholar
  14. M. N. Bradaï, Diversitè du peuplement ichtyque et contribution à la connaissance des sparidès du Golfe de Gabes [Ph.D. thesis], University of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia, 2000.
  15. M. Chérif, M. M. Ben Amor, M. Bdioui, S. Ben Salem, H. Missaoui, and C. Canapé, “Additional records of the Blunthead puffer, Sphoeroides pachygaster (Osteichthyes: Tetraodontidae) off the Tunisian Coast (Central Mediterranean),” Annales Historia Naturalis, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 33–36, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  16. M. Arculeo, S. Riggio, and G. D’Anna, “First record of Sphoeroides pachygaster (Tetraodontidae) in the south Tyrrhenian (N/W Sicily),” Cybium, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 209–210, 1994. View at: Google Scholar
  17. S. Ragonese, P. Jereb, and U. Morara, “Morphometric relationships of Sphoeroides pachygaster (Pisces-Tetraodontidae) of the strait of sicily (Mediterranean Sea),” Cahiers de Biologie Marine, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 283–289, 1997. View at: Google Scholar
  18. A. Tursi, G. D’Onghia, and A. Matarrese, “First finding of Sphoeroides pachygaster (Müller & Troschel, 1848) (Tetraodontidae) in the Ionian Sea (middle eastern Mediterranean),” Cybium, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 171–172, 1992. View at: Google Scholar
  19. A. Ligas, R. Sirna, and R. Sartor, “Prima segnalazione di Sphoeroides pachygaster (Müller & Troschel, 1848) (Pisces, Tetraodontidae) nel Mar Tirreno Settentrionale,” Biologia Marina Mediterranea, vol. 13, pp. 274–275, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  20. M. Relini and L. Orsi Relini, “Pesci palla in Mediterraneo, presenze antiche e recenti,” Biologia Marina Mediterranea, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 509–511, 1995. View at: Google Scholar
  21. E. Tortonese, “Tetraodontidae,” in Fishes of the North-Eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean, P. J. P. Whitehead, J. C. Hureau, J. Nielsen, and E. Tortonese, Eds., pp. 1984–1986, UNESCO, Paris, France, 1986. View at: Google Scholar
  22. J. M. Drake and D. M. Lodge, “Global hot spots of biological invasions: evaluating options for ballast-water management,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 271, no. 1539, pp. 575–580, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  23. F. Courchamp, R. Woodroffe, and G. Roemer, “Removing Protected Populations to Save Endangered Species,” Science, vol. 302, no. 5650, p. 1532, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  24. C. F. Boudouresque, S. Ruitton, and M. Verlaque, “Large-scale disturbances, regime shift and recovery in littoral systems subject to biological invasions,” in Unesco Roste/BAS Workshop on Regime Shifts, V. Velikova and N. Chipev, Eds., pp. 85–101, UNESCO, Varna, Bulgaria, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  25. A. Zenetos, V. Vassilopoulou, M. Salomidi, and E. Poursanidis, “Additions to the marine alien fauna to Greek waters,” Marine Biodiversity Records, vol. 1, p. e91, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  26. M. De Poorter, C. Darby, and J. MacKay, Marine Menace. Alien invasive species in the marine environment, IUCN,, 2010.
  27. M. Oral, “Alien fish species in the Mediterranean-Black Sea Basin,” Journal of the Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 87–132, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  28. P. Maiorano, L. Sion, R. Carlucci et al., “The demersal faunal assemblage of the north-western Ionian Sea (central Mediterranean): current knowledge and perspectives,” Chemistry and Ecology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 219–240, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar

Copyright © 2012 D. Giordano et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Related articles

No related content is available yet for this article.
 PDF Download Citation Citation
 Download other formatsMore
 Order printed copiesOrder

Related articles

No related content is available yet for this article.

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2021, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.