Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2015, Article ID 527025, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/527025
Research Article

N-Type Conductive Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Films Grown by Hot Filament CVD

Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm, Germany

Received 24 September 2014; Revised 20 January 2015; Accepted 12 February 2015

Academic Editor: Aiying Wang

Copyright © 2015 Michael Mertens et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. J. Fecht and M. Werner, The Nano-Micro Interface—Bridging the Micro and Nano Worlds, Wiley-VCH, 2004.
  2. H.-J. Fecht, K. Brühne, and P. Gluche, Eds., Carbon-based Nanomaterials and Hybrids—Synthesis, Properties, and Commercial Applications, Pan Stanford, Singapore, 2014.
  3. M. Werner, M. Adamschik, P. Gluche, E. Kohn, and H.-J. Fecht, “Review on diamond based piezoresistive sensors,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE '98), vol. 1, pp. 147–152, July 1998. View at Scopus
  4. M. Dipalo, J. Kusterer, K. Janischowsky, and E. Kohn, “N-type doped nano-diamond in a first MEMS application,” Physica Status Solidi A, vol. 203, no. 12, pp. 3036–3041, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. Kalish, “The search for donors in diamond,” Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 10, no. 9-10, pp. 1749–1755, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. Kalish, “Diamond as a unique high-tech electronic material: difficulties and prospects,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 40, no. 20, pp. 6467–6478, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J.-P. Lagrange, A. Deneuville, and E. Gheeraert, “Activation energy in low compensated homoepitaxial boron-doped diamond films,” Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 1390–1393, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Bhattacharyya, O. Auciello, J. Birrell et al., “Synthesis and characterization of highly-conducting nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond films,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 79, no. 10, pp. 1441–1443, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. O. A. Williams, S. Curat, J. E. Gerbi, D. M. Gruen und, and R. B. Jackman, “n-type conductivity in ultrananocrystalline diamond films,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 85, no. 10, pp. 1680–1682, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. N. Wiora, M. Mertens, M. Mohr, K. Brühne, and H.-J. Fecht, “Synthesis and characterization of n-type nitrogenated nanocrystalline diamond,” Micromaterials and Nanomaterials, vol. 15, no. 96–98, pp. 1619–2486, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  11. P. Zapol, M. Sternberg, L. A. Curtis, T. Frauenheim, and D. M. Gruen, “Tight-binding molecular-dynamics simulation of impurities in ultrananocrystalline diamond grain boundaries,” Physical Review B—Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, vol. 65, no. 4, Article ID 045403, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Birrell, J. A. Carlisle, O. Auciello, D. M. Gruen, and J. M. Gibson, “Morphology and electronic structure in nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 81, no. 12, pp. 2235–2237, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. Ikeda, K. Teii, C. Casiraghi, J. Robertson, and A. C. Ferrari, “Effect of the sp2 carbon phase on n-type conduction in nanodiamond films,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 104, no. 7, Article ID 073720, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. Achatz, J. A. Garrido, M. Stutzmann et al., “Optical properties of nanocrystalline diamond thin films,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 88, no. 10, Article ID 101908, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. K. Reeves and H. B. Harrison, “Obtaining the specific contact resistance from transmission line model measurements,” IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 111–113, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  16. H. O. Pierson, Handbook of Refractory Carbides and Nitrides, Noyes Publications, 1996.
  17. K. Das, V. Venkatesan, K. Miyata, D. L. Dreifus, and J. T. Glass, “A review of the electrical characteristics of metal contacts on diamond,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 212, no. 1-2, pp. 19–24, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Das, V. Venkatesan, K. Miyata, D. L. Dreifus, and J. T. Glass, “A review of the electrical characteristics of metal contacts on diamond,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 212, no. 1-2, pp. 19–24, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. C. Tisone and J. Drobek, “Diffusion in thin film Ti–Au, Ti–Pd, and Ti–Pt couples,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 271–275, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. L. Valdes, “Resistivity measurements on germanium for transistors,” Proceedings of the IRE, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 420–427, 1954. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. P. Keblinski, D. Wolf, S. R. Phillpot, and H. Gleiter, “Role of bonding and coordination in the atomic structure and energy of diamond and silicon grain boundaries,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 2077–2099, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. O. A. Williams, “Nanocrystalline diamond,” Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 20, no. 5-6, pp. 621–640, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Nesládek, K. Meykens, L. M. Stals, M. Vaněček, and J. Rosa, “Origin of characteristic subgap optical absorption in CVD diamond films,” Physical Review B, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 5552–5561, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. R. Sails, D. J. Gardiner, M. Bowden, J. Savage, and D. Rodway, “Monitoring the quality of diamond films using Raman spectra excited at 514.5 nm and 633 nm,” Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 5, no. 6–8, pp. 589–591, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. Klauser, D. Steinmüller-Nethl, R. Kaindl, E. Bertel, and N. Memmel, “Raman studies of nano-and ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films grown by hot-filament CVD,” Chemical Vapor Deposition, vol. 16, no. 4–6, pp. 127–135, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of amorphous, nanostructured, diamond-like carbon, and nanodiamond,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, vol. 362, no. 1824, pp. 2477–2512, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Origin of the 1150 cm-1 Raman mode in nanocrystalline diamond,” Physical Review B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, vol. 63, no. 12, Article ID 121405, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Birrell, J. E. Gerbi, O. Auciello, J. M. Gibson, D. M. Gruen, and J. A. Carlisle, “Bonding structure in nitrogen doped ultrananocrystalline diamond,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 93, no. 9, pp. 5606–5612, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus