Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2014, Article ID 901686, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/901686
Review Article

Do Nutritional Supplements Have a Role in Age Macular Degeneration Prevention?

1University of Valencia, Spain
2The Ophthalmic Research Unit “Santiago Grisolía”, Valencia, Spain
3University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain
4The Institute Gomez-Ulla, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
5Foundation RetinaPlus, Spain
6University of Barcelona, Spain
7Retina Section, Department of Ophthalmology, Bellvitge University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain
8Vitreous and Retina Department, UPV/EHU and Instituto Clínico Quirúrgico de Oftalmología (ICQO), University of the Basque Country, Bilbao, Spain
9Clinic Institute of Ophthalmology, Clinic Hospital of Barcelona, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
10Macula Section, Department of Ophthalmology, University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain
11University of Murcia, General University Hospital Reina Sofia, Murcia, Spain
12Ophthalmic Reseach Unit “Santiago Grisolia”, Valencia, Spain
13The University of Valladolid, Diabetes and Telemedicine Unit at the IOBA, Spain
14The Retina Unit of the Clinic University Hospital of Valladolid, Spain
15The University of Valladolid, Spain
16The Vitreo-Retina Unit of the Clinic University Hospital of Valladolid, Spain
17Research Institute of the Hospital of Vall Hebron, Barcelona, Spain
18Retina Section of the Hospital of Vall Hebron, The Universidad Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
19Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
20University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain
21University of Navarra Clinic, Pamplona, Spain

Received 22 July 2013; Accepted 12 October 2013; Published 23 January 2014

Academic Editor: Jürgen Groll

Copyright © 2014 Maria D. Pinazo-Durán et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Purpose. To review the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of age macular degeneration (AMD), as well as the role of antioxidants (AOX) and omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3) supplements in AMD prevention. Materials and Methods. Current knowledge on the cellular/molecular mechanisms of AMD and the epidemiologic/experimental studies on the effects of AOX and ω-3 were addressed all together with the scientific evidence and the personal opinion of professionals involved in the Retina Group of the OFTARED (Spain). Results. High dietary intakes of ω-3 and macular pigments lutein/zeaxanthin are associated with lower risk of prevalence and incidence in AMD. The Age-Related Eye Disease study (AREDS) showed a beneficial effect of high doses of vitamins C, E, beta-carotene, and zinc/copper in reducing the rate of progression to advanced AMD in patients with intermediate AMD or with one-sided late AMD. The AREDS-2 study has shown that lutein and zeaxanthin may substitute beta-carotene because of its potential relationship with increased lung cancer incidence. Conclusion. Research has proved that elder people with poor diets, especially with low AOX and ω-3 micronutrients intake and subsequently having low plasmatic levels, are more prone to developing AMD. Micronutrient supplementation enhances antioxidant defense and healthy eyes and might prevent/retard/modify AMD.