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Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 392305, 8 pages
Research Article

Effects of Zeaxanthin on Growth and Invasion of Human Uveal Melanoma in Nude Mouse Model

1Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
2Department of Ophthalmology, The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10003, USA
3Department of Pathology, The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10003, USA
4ZeaVision LLC, Chesterfield, MO 63005, USA

Received 21 August 2015; Accepted 26 October 2015

Academic Editor: Tadeusz Sarna

Copyright © 2015 Xiaoliang L. Xu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Uveal melanoma cells were inoculated into the choroid of nude mice and treated with or without intraocular injection of zeaxanthin. After 21 days, mice were sacrificed and the eyes enucleated. Histopathological analysis was performed in hematoxylin and eosin stained frozen sections. Melanoma developed rapidly in the control group (without treatment of zeaxanthin). Tumor-bearing eye mass and tumor mass in the control group were significantly greater than those in zeaxanthin treated group. Melanoma in the controlled eyes occupied a large part of the eye, was epithelioid in morphology, and was with numerous mitotic figures. Scleral perforation and extraocular extension were observed in half of the eyes. Melanomas in zeaxanthin treated eyes were significantly smaller with many necrosis and apoptosis areas and no extraocular extension could be found. Quantitative image analysis revealed that the tumor size was reduced by 56% in eyes treated with low dosages of zeaxanthin and 92% in eyes treatment with high dosages of zeaxanthin, as compared to the controls. This study demonstrated that zeaxanthin significantly inhibits the growth and invasion of human uveal melanoma in nude mice, suggesting that zeaxanthin may be a promising agent to be explored for the prevention and treatment of uveal melanoma.