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Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2015, Article ID 430741, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/430741
Research Article

Lutein Leads to a Decrease of Factor D Secretion by Cultured Mature Human Adipocytes

1University Eye Clinic Maastricht, Postbus 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht, Netherlands
2Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands
3Sektion Pädiatrische Endokrinologie u. Diabetologie, Universität Ulm, Germany

Received 31 May 2015; Revised 20 August 2015; Accepted 27 August 2015

Academic Editor: Shun-Fa Yang

Copyright © 2015 Yuan Tian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Purpose. Complement plays an important role in the pathogenesis of age related macular degeneration (AMD) and trials are currently being conducted to investigate the effect of complement inhibition on AMD progression. We previously found that the plasma level of factor D (FD), which is the rate limiting enzyme of the complement alternative pathway, was significantly decreased following lutein supplementation. FD is synthesized by adipose tissue, which is also the main storage site of lutein. In view of these findings we tested the hypothesis whether lutein could affect FD synthesis by adipocytes. Methods. A cell line of mature human adipocytes was incubated with 50 μg/mL lutein for 24 and 48 h, whereafter FD mRNA and protein expression were measured. Results. Lutein significantly inhibited adipocyte FD mRNA expression and FD protein release into adipocyte culture supernatants. Conclusions. Our earlier observations showing that a daily lutein supplement in individuals with early signs of AMD lowered the level of circulating FD might be caused by blocking adipocyte FD production.