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Journal of Smoking Cessation is the world's only publication devoted exclusively to the treatment of smoking cessation. It is a journal of The Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs and the official journal of the Association for the Treatment of Tobacco Use and Dependence.
Journal of Smoking Cessation maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Associations between Childhood Abuse, Resilience, Mindfulness, and Waterpipe Smoking: Implications for Cessation Interventions
Introduction. Recent research has established a link between childhood abuse and later drug abuse. For waterpipe smoking (WPS), such a role has not been adequately clarified. Aims. To explore the mediating effect of resilience and mindfulness on the association between childhood abuse and current WPS among college students. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a consecutive sample () of college students in Kerman, Iran. The Adverse Childhood Experiences Abuse Short Form, the 14-item Resilience Scale, and the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory were used. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the complex associations between variables. Results. Nearly 95% of participants were aged between 18 and 27 years, and the mean (SD) age of students was 22.2 (3.1). Most of them were single (84.4), and 52.7% were female. Prevalence of lifetime and current WPS among students was 49.6% and 33.4%, respectively. Less than one-third () of lifetime users first tried smoking by the age of 18. The risk of current WPS was significantly higher in males than females (). Childhood abuse was directly associated with current WPS () and resilience (). Adverse childhood experiences were also indirectly (mediated by the effect of the resilience, path ) associated with the risk of WPS. No relationship was seen between trait mindfulness and current WPS (). Resilience was negatively associated with current WPS (). Conclusion. The study revealed the potential importance of childhood abuse and low resilience as risk factors precipitating the onset of WPS. Further studies are warranted to examine the implications of this study for quitting WPS.
An Open Trial of Metacognitive Remediation Therapy and Pharmacotherapy to Promote Smoking Cessation among Individuals with Psychotic-Spectrum Disorders
Introduction. Individuals with psychotic-spectrum disorders may smoke due to the ameliorating effect of nicotine on the cognitive deficits that accompany these illnesses. Metacognitive remediation therapy (MCR) has been shown to produce improvements in cognitive functioning among individuals with psychotic-spectrum disorders and provides a foundation for a novel smoking cessation intervention for this population. Aims. To complete an open investigation of pharmacotherapy and a modified version of MCR [MCR to Quit (MCR-Q)] in promoting smoking cessation among individuals with psychotic-spectrum disorders. Methods. Forty-nine individuals with a psychotic-spectrum disorder and who currently smoke cigarettes participated in MCR-Q while also receiving evidence-based smoking cessation pharmacotherapy. Tobacco use was assessed as follows: (i) prior to MCR-Q, (ii) immediately after completing MCR-Q, and (iii) six weeks after completion of MCR-Q. Results/Findings. During participation in MCR-Q, nearly 80% of participants made a 24-hour quit attempt. Following the completion of MCR-Q, participants experienced reductions in level of nicotine dependency and exhaled carbon monoxide, with reductions in nicotine dependency sustained six weeks after completion of MCR-Q. Over the course of their participation in MCR-Q, participants reported strong therapeutic alliance with their MCR-Q therapist and high levels of intrinsic motivation with regard to completing MCR-Q exercises. Conclusions. The results from the current study suggest cautious optimism with regard to the use of MCR-Q in combination with medication for individuals with psychotic-spectrum disorders who want to quit smoking.
Galantamine as a Treatment Option for Nicotine Addiction
The pharmacological therapy for smoking cessation recommended by National Institute for Health and care Excellence (NICE) guidelines is nicotine replacement therapy such as gum, inhalator, lozenge, nasal spray, oral spray, sublingual tablet, and transdermal patch. Medications such as bupropion and varenicline are also used. Varenicline is the only established drug used to alleviate symptoms of craving as it acts as a partial nicotine agonist. Galantamine has a similar mechanism of action where it is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and nicotinic receptor agonist. However, varenicline is the only recommended drug. There are not many studies to illustrate the effectiveness of galantamine for smoking cessation. This article explores the possibility of potential use of galantamine in alleviating the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal.
Spontaneous Smoking Cessation in Parents
Purpose. To determine the percentage of parents who report quitting spontaneously and examine the factors associated with these quits. Methods. As part of a cluster randomized control trial addressing parental smoking in a pediatric outpatient setting, 12-month follow-up survey data were collected from parents who had self-identified as smokers when exiting from 10 control practices. Parents were considered to have made a spontaneous quit if they reported not smoking a cigarette, even a puff, in the last 7 days and chose the statement “I did not plan the quit in advance; I just did it” when describing how their quit attempt started. Results. Of the 981 smoking parents enrolled at baseline, 710 (72%) completed the 12-month follow-up. Of these, 123 (17%) reported quitting, of whom 50 (41%) reported quitting spontaneously. In multivariable analysis, parents who reported smoking on some days vs. every day (OR 3.06 (95% CI 1.42, 6.62)) and that nobody had smoked in their home/car vs. someone had smoked in these settings in the past 3 months (OR 2.19 (95% CI 1.06, 4.54)) were more likely to quit spontaneously. Conclusions. This study shows that, of parents who quit smoking, a substantial percentage report quitting spontaneously and that intermittent smoking and smoke-free home/car policies are associated with reports of quitting spontaneously. Promoting smoke-free home/car policies, especially when parents are not willing to make a plan to quit smoking, might increase the likelihood that parents decide to quit without advance planning. Pediatric healthcare providers are uniquely positioned to use the child’s visit to motivate parents to quit smoking and eliminate their child’s exposure to tobacco smoke, regardless of the frequency of smoking or a readiness to plan a quit attempt. Clinical Trial Registration. This trial is registered with NCT01882348.
Relationships among Self-Efficacy, Quality of Life, Perceived Vulnerability, and Readiness to Quit Smoking in People Living with HIV
Smoking-related diseases (e.g., lung cancer) are the leading cause of mortality in HIV-infected patients. While many PLWH who smoke report a desire to quit, a majority of them have low readiness to quit. This study used logistic and linear regression to examine the relations among two (continuous vs. binary) measures of readiness to quit, smoking cessation self-efficacy (SE), quality of life (QoL), and perceived vulnerability (PV) using baseline data from 100 PLWH who smoke who participated in a clinical trial. Results showed no significant main effects (SE, QoL, and PV) or interaction effects ( and ) on a continuous measure of readiness to quit. However, a follow-up analysis revealed that SE had a curvilinear effect on readiness to quit such that self-efficacy was positively associated with readiness to quit except at the highest levels of self-efficacy where readiness to quit declined. Greater SE significantly increased the likelihood of reporting readiness to quit (yes/no) among those with low QoL or high PV. For PLWH who smoke, improving self-efficacy may increase readiness to quit especially among those with lower quality of life. Psychoeducation tailored to PLWH designed to reduce unrealistic invulnerability to smoking-related diseases along with interventions that target self-efficacy may improve readiness to quit.
Family Support and Readiness to Consider Smoking Cessation among Chinese and Vietnamese American Male Smokers
Introduction. Smoking prevalence is disproportionately high among Asian American immigrant men with limited English proficiency. Understanding the role of family support may provide insights into culturally acceptable strategies to promote smoking cessation. Aims. This study examined how family support was associated with readiness to consider smoking cessation among Chinese and Vietnamese American male daily smokers. Methods. We analyzed baseline data () from a cluster randomized trial of a family-based healthy lifestyle intervention. We assessed the frequency of receiving family support in various forms (encouraging use of cessation resources, praising efforts, checking in, and reminding of familial role). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine associations between family support areas and readiness to consider smoking cessation, controlling for covariates. Results/Findings. Reporting a higher frequency of receiving praise and encouragement for one’s efforts to quit was positively associated with readiness to consider cessation. Other areas of family support were not significant. Conclusions. These findings provide evidence to explore specific areas of family support in enhancing Asian American smokers’ readiness to consider cessation. As there is high interest from Asian American family members to support their smokers for quitting, culturally specific and acceptable strategies are needed to promote smoking cessation among Asian Americans.