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Journal of Smoking Cessation is the world's only publication devoted exclusively to the treatment of smoking cessation. It is a journal of The Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs and the official journal of the Association for the Treatment of Tobacco Use and Dependence.
Journal of Smoking Cessation maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Spontaneous Smoking Cessation in Parents
Purpose. To determine the percentage of parents who report quitting spontaneously and examine the factors associated with these quits. Methods. As part of a cluster randomized control trial addressing parental smoking in a pediatric outpatient setting, 12-month follow-up survey data were collected from parents who had self-identified as smokers when exiting from 10 control practices. Parents were considered to have made a spontaneous quit if they reported not smoking a cigarette, even a puff, in the last 7 days and chose the statement “I did not plan the quit in advance; I just did it” when describing how their quit attempt started. Results. Of the 981 smoking parents enrolled at baseline, 710 (72%) completed the 12-month follow-up. Of these, 123 (17%) reported quitting, of whom 50 (41%) reported quitting spontaneously. In multivariable analysis, parents who reported smoking on some days vs. every day (OR 3.06 (95% CI 1.42, 6.62)) and that nobody had smoked in their home/car vs. someone had smoked in these settings in the past 3 months (OR 2.19 (95% CI 1.06, 4.54)) were more likely to quit spontaneously. Conclusions. This study shows that, of parents who quit smoking, a substantial percentage report quitting spontaneously and that intermittent smoking and smoke-free home/car policies are associated with reports of quitting spontaneously. Promoting smoke-free home/car policies, especially when parents are not willing to make a plan to quit smoking, might increase the likelihood that parents decide to quit without advance planning. Pediatric healthcare providers are uniquely positioned to use the child’s visit to motivate parents to quit smoking and eliminate their child’s exposure to tobacco smoke, regardless of the frequency of smoking or a readiness to plan a quit attempt. Clinical Trial Registration. This trial is registered with NCT01882348.
Relationships among Self-Efficacy, Quality of Life, Perceived Vulnerability, and Readiness to Quit Smoking in People Living with HIV
Smoking-related diseases (e.g., lung cancer) are the leading cause of mortality in HIV-infected patients. While many PLWH who smoke report a desire to quit, a majority of them have low readiness to quit. This study used logistic and linear regression to examine the relations among two (continuous vs. binary) measures of readiness to quit, smoking cessation self-efficacy (SE), quality of life (QoL), and perceived vulnerability (PV) using baseline data from 100 PLWH who smoke who participated in a clinical trial. Results showed no significant main effects (SE, QoL, and PV) or interaction effects ( and ) on a continuous measure of readiness to quit. However, a follow-up analysis revealed that SE had a curvilinear effect on readiness to quit such that self-efficacy was positively associated with readiness to quit except at the highest levels of self-efficacy where readiness to quit declined. Greater SE significantly increased the likelihood of reporting readiness to quit (yes/no) among those with low QoL or high PV. For PLWH who smoke, improving self-efficacy may increase readiness to quit especially among those with lower quality of life. Psychoeducation tailored to PLWH designed to reduce unrealistic invulnerability to smoking-related diseases along with interventions that target self-efficacy may improve readiness to quit.
Family Support and Readiness to Consider Smoking Cessation among Chinese and Vietnamese American Male Smokers
Introduction. Smoking prevalence is disproportionately high among Asian American immigrant men with limited English proficiency. Understanding the role of family support may provide insights into culturally acceptable strategies to promote smoking cessation. Aims. This study examined how family support was associated with readiness to consider smoking cessation among Chinese and Vietnamese American male daily smokers. Methods. We analyzed baseline data () from a cluster randomized trial of a family-based healthy lifestyle intervention. We assessed the frequency of receiving family support in various forms (encouraging use of cessation resources, praising efforts, checking in, and reminding of familial role). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine associations between family support areas and readiness to consider smoking cessation, controlling for covariates. Results/Findings. Reporting a higher frequency of receiving praise and encouragement for one’s efforts to quit was positively associated with readiness to consider cessation. Other areas of family support were not significant. Conclusions. These findings provide evidence to explore specific areas of family support in enhancing Asian American smokers’ readiness to consider cessation. As there is high interest from Asian American family members to support their smokers for quitting, culturally specific and acceptable strategies are needed to promote smoking cessation among Asian Americans.
Waterpipe Smoking among Bladder Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study of Lebanese and Jordanian Populations
Background. Bladder cancer (BC) is the second most reported cancer in Lebanon and the fifth in Jordan. Its risk factors are mainly smoking and occupational exposure to aromatic amines. In these countries where smoking and bladder cancer are highly prevalent, the role of waterpipe smoking (WPS) in bladder cancer is less investigated. We aim to compare two sets of patients between Lebanon and Jordan, focusing on their smoking habits, WP use, occupational exposure, and the grade/invasiveness of their bladder cancer. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that compares the smoking culture between two sets of populations with bladder cancer, from two different countries. We recruited 274 bladder cancer patients over the 18 years of age at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC), and 158 bladder cancer patients over the age of 18 years at the King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC). Results. 7.7% of Lebanese patients had significantly more positive family history of bladder cancer compared to 13.9% of Jordanian patients (). Another significant finding is that the majority of Lebanese patients 70.7% reported being frequently exposed to secondhand smoking, mainly cigarettes, versus only 48.6% of Jordanian patients (). The increasing smoking trend among Lebanese females is remarkably the highest in the region, which contributed to the overall increase in smoking rates in the country. 17.1% of the Lebanese smoking patients are mainly but not exclusively WP smokers of which 6.3% are daily WP smokers, similarly 17.1% of the Jordanian patients of which 3.2% are daily WP smokers. There were 71.5% of Lebanese patients who had a noninvasive BC versus 40% of Jordanian patients (), and more than one-third reported an occupational exposure to one of the risk factors of BC in both groups. Conclusions. Bladder cancer incidence is on the rise in both Jordan and Lebanon along with different smoking types. It is necessary to impose prevention policies to prevent and control the high smoking prevalence. Bladder cancer invasiveness is higher in Jordan compared to universal data.
Household Smoking Restrictions, Time to First Cigarette and Tobacco Dependence
Objective. Environmental factors, such as household smoking restrictions (HSR), may impact a range of smoking-related outcomes. The current study examined the effects of various levels of HSR on smoking behaviors, including the number of cigarettes smoked per day and levels of nicotine dependence in a population of adult smokers. (1) Having specific HSR reduces the urges to smoke (path A); (2) having specific HSR reduces CPD (path B); (3) having specific HSR results in lower overall nicotine addiction (path C), and later, TTFC will be associated with (4) lower urges to smoke in the morning (path A’), (5) fewer CPD (path B’), and (6) lower levels of nicotine addiction (path C’). Method. Regression models using self-reported data from the Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study () were used. TTFC was measured minutes between waking and the first cigarette of the day. Household smoking restrictions were measured as follows: (1) full ban on smoking in the home, (2) partial ban, or (3) no ban. Results. Subjects with no household smoking restrictions had lower incomes and education than those with at least some household smoking restrictions; those with full bans smoked less and had an earlier TTFC than those with at least some household smoking restrictions. Smokers with a full ban had a later TTFC, mediated by fewer cigarettes per day and lower cravings. Among those with partial bans, there is no reduction in cigarettes per day and an increase in urges to smoke. Conclusions. Partial household smoking restrictions are no better than no household smoking restrictions with regard to cigarettes per day and TTFC, and may cause an increase in urges to smoke in the morning.
Evaluation of Combined Financial Incentives and Deposit Contract Intervention for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Introduction. We evaluate whether a combination of financial incentives and deposit contracts improves cessation rates among low- to moderate-income smokers. Methods. We randomly assigned 311 smokers covered by Medicaid at 12 health clinics in Connecticut to usual care or one of the three treatment arms. Each treatment arm received financial incentives for two months and either (i) nothing further (“incentives only”), (ii) the option to start a deposit contract with incentive earnings after the incentives ended (“commitment”), or (iii) the option to precommit any earned incentives into a deposit contract starting after the incentives ended (“precommitment”). Smoking cessation was confirmed biochemically at two, six, and twelve months. Results. At two, six, and twelve months after baseline, our estimated treatment effects on cessation are positive but imprecise, with confidence intervals containing effect sizes estimated by prior studies of financial incentives alone and deposit contracts alone. At two months, the odds ratio for quitting was 1.4 in the incentive-only condition (95% CI: 0.5 to 3.5), 2.0 for incentives followed by commitment (95% CI: 0.6 to 6.1), and 1.9 for incentives and precommitment (95% CI: 0.7 to 5.3). Conclusions. A combined incentive and deposit contract program for Medicaid enrollees, with incentives offering up to $300 for smoking cessation and use of support services, produced a positive but imprecisely estimated effect on biochemically verified cessation relative to usual care and with no detectable difference in cessation rates between the different treatment arms.