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Journal of Robotics
Volume 2018, Article ID 4578762, 11 pages
Review Article

Learning by Teaching with Humanoid Robot: A New Powerful Experimental Tool to Improve Children’s Learning Ability

1P-A-R-I-S Association, 25 rue Henri Barbusse, 75005 Paris, France
2Laboratoire CHArt, Université Paris VIII, EPHE, 4-14 rue Ferrus, 75014 Paris, France
3Université de Cergy-Pontoise, 33 boulevard du Port, 95011 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex, France
4Facultés Libres de Philosophie et de Psychologie (IPC), 70 av. Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris, France
5Institut Jean Nicod (IJN), École Normale Supérieure (ENS), 29 rue d’Ulm, 75005 Paris, France

Correspondence should be addressed to Jean Baratgin; rf.8sirap-vinu@nigtarab.naej

Received 31 August 2018; Revised 26 October 2018; Accepted 1 November 2018; Published 18 November 2018

Academic Editor: Gordon R. Pennock

Copyright © 2018 Frank Jamet et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Browsing the literature shows that an increasing number of authors choose to use the learning by teaching approach in the field of educational robotics. The goal of this paper is, on the one hand, to produce a review of articles describing the effects of this approach on learning and, on the other hand, to review the literature in order to explore the characteristics at the core of this approach. We will only focus on the work using a humanoid robot. The areas of learning studied are writing, reading, vocabulary, and reasoning, but also there are some metacognitive abilities like task commitment and mental state attribution. Their targets are from very young children to preadolescents. We can already notice some studies on pupils with special educational needs. In all of these domains, the results show a nonnegligible effect of learning by teaching both on learning and on metacognitive abilities. If the concept of learning by teaching is clear, a careful investigation of the different studies shows that experimental paradigms do not use the same basic characteristics. For some, it is the robot’s weakness, the care that must be given to it, which is the main requirement for the approach, while for others it is the unbalanced distribution of knowledge which is at the heart of it. The learning by teaching approach we will study has two components: the robot and the child tutor. The characteristics of the robot and what is asked of the child to accomplish his or her task of the tutor will be analyzed.