Table 1: Main studies of Learning by Teaching according to the characteristics of the “pupil robot” and the “child teacher”.

ResearchRobots TypeRobot’s characteristicsChildren’s characteristicCollaboration’ phenomenon

Reading
[4]NaoAutonomous6 to 7 years oldProtégé effect
(Deictic gesture, pointing)

Writing  
Handwriting
[6]Nao V4Autonomous6 to 8 years oldInduce agency
7 to 8 years oldanthropomorphizing.
Cognitively engage
[7]Nao V4, V5Autonomous5 to 8 years oldInduce agency
with SENanthropomorphizing.
Cognitively engage
[26]NaoAutonomous7 to 9 years oldCorrective feedback as a
peer assessment approach
Alone with NAO
[27]NaoAutonomous5 to 6 years oldProtégé effect
Corrective feedback
[10]NaoAutonomous7 to 9 years old age

Language
[5]NaoTele-operated3 to 6 years oldCare-receiving robot
[28]PepperTotal Physical Response4 to 5 years oldCare-receiving robot

Reasoning
[11, 12]Nao V5Tele-operated, designed to give5 to 6 years oldAlone with NAO
the impression to be ignorantNAO is silly
Teacher status

Metacognitive abilities
Feasibility of collaborative learning
Learning timeUnable to answer
[15, 16]IfbotTele-operated, Limited number8 to 11 yearscorrectly
of expressions and its arms andoldLearning capability
body are immobile.with SEN
Children’s engagement Attribution of mental states
[29]EpiDesigned to give the impression5 to 9 years old
of being a child while still being decidedly robotic.
Handwriting    Children’s engagement



[30]NaoV4, V5Tele-operated5 years oldProtégé effect
6,05 to 8 years old
with SEN

Children with special educational needs: visuoconstructive deficits and poor handwriting and even poorer self-confidence.
Children with special educational needs: autism spectrum disorder and with potential symptoms of developmental disability.